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- Beef cattle
- Breeds of cattle & buffalo
- Effect of Cattle Breeds on Milk Composition and Technological Characteristics in China
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Breeds of cattle & buffalo
Cattle , domesticated bovine farm animals that are raised for their meat , milk , or hides or for draft purposes. The animals most often included under the term are the Western or European domesticated cattle as well as the Indian and African domesticated cattle. However, certain other bovids such as the Asian water buffalo , the Tibetan yak , the gayal and banteng of Southeast Asia , and the plains bison of North America have also been domesticated or semidomesticated and are sometimes considered to be cattle. In the terminology used to describe the sex and age of cattle, the male is first a bull calf and if left intact becomes a bull; if castrated he becomes a steer and in about two or three years grows to an ox. The female is first a heifer calf, growing into a heifer and becoming a cow. Depending on the breed, mature bulls weigh —1, kg 1,—4, pounds and cows —1, kg —2, pounds.
Effect of Cattle Breeds on Milk Composition and Technological Characteristics in China
Cattle breeds have a striking effect on milk, including milk composition and technological characteristics. This study aims to compare milk composition, acidification activity, viscosity, milk dispersion system stability and casein molecular weight among three buffalo breeds in China. Cattle breeds showed evident effect on milk protein, fat and total solids content, but little effect on most of buffalo casein molecular weight. Milk fat, protein content and the viscosity of buffalo milk from river buffalo were lower than those of F 1 and F H , so was the buffer capacity.
Over breeds of cattle are recognized worldwide, some of which adapted to the local climate , others which were bred by humans for specialized uses. Cattle breeds fall into two main types, which are regarded as either two closely related species , or two subspecies of one species. Bos indicus or Bos taurus indicus cattle, commonly called zebu, are adapted to hot climates and originated in the tropical parts of the world such as India, Sub-saharan Africa, China, and Southeast Asia. Bos taurus or Bos taurus taurus , typically referred to as "taurine" cattle, are generally adapted to cooler climates and include almost all cattle breeds originating from Europe, the Mediterranean region, and northern Asia. Both species were likely present since ancient times in northern Africa and the Middle East, where both natural and human-caused hybridization likely occurred.
Some common methods of breeding of cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, donkeys, mules, camels, etc. The oestrus heat period in the female lasts for hours. The average gestation period for the cow is days. It involves the insemination of the semen of superior bulls of exotic or indigenous breeds into the native cows.
Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production as distinguished from dairy cattle , used for milk production. The meat of mature or almost mature cattle is mostly known as beef.
Dairy cattle breeds
Venti mille pesete. Итальянец перевел взгляд на свой маленький потрепанный мотоцикл и засмеялся. - Venti mille pesete. La Vespa. - Cinquanta mille.