History Of Technical And Vocational Education In Zambia Pdf

history of technical and vocational education in zambia pdf

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Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. The reason for conducting this research was to suggest some solutions that can contribute towards resolving the problem of high unemployment prevailing in Lusaka province, Zambia emanating from underdevelopment. According to CSO [1] , unemployment stood 7.

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Challenges of Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Nigerian History

McCaslin Darrel Parks. Vocational education in the United States is the product of an extended evolutionary process. Economic, educational, and societal issues have repeatedly exerted influence on the definition of vocational education, as well as on how, when, where, and to whom it will be provided. There are many legal definitions of vocational education i. These legal definitions are critical since they specify how, for what purpose, and to what extent federal monies may be spent for vocational education.

All too often this legal definition is interpreted by state and local officials as the only definition of vocational education. For the purpose of this article, vocational education is defined as a practically illustrated and attempted job or career skill instruction. As such, a variety of components fall under the vocational education umbrella: agricultural education, business education, family and consumer sciences, health occupations education, marketing education, technical education, technology education, and trade and industrial education.

The vocational curriculum can be identified as a combination of classroom instruction—hands-on laboratory work and on-the-job training—augmented by an active network of student organizations. Vocational preparation must always be viewed against the backdrop of the needs of society and of the individual. While meeting the demands of the economy, the abilities of individuals must be utilized to the fullest.

Meeting the internalized job needs of individuals is a crucial objective of vocational education. The first formalized vocational education system in America can be traced to apprenticeship agreements of colonial times. The first education law passed in America, the Old Deluder Satan Act of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, set specific requirements for masters to teach apprentices academic as well as vocational skills.

During the colonial period the colonies frequently cared for orphans, poor children, and delinquents by indenturing them to serve apprenticeships. As apprenticeship declined, other institutions developed to care for these youngsters. By the mids vocational education in the form of industrial education was synonymous with institutional programs for these youth.

The children of defeated Native American leaders were sent to the Carlisle Pennsylvania Indian School, and the curriculum was job training. After the Civil War Samuel Chapman Armstrong, the founder of Hampton Institute and the ideological father of African-American vocational education, tried to address the racial aspects of the social and economic relations between the former slaves and the white South.

His vocational education programs emphasized the need for African Americans to be good, subservient laborers. The prominent educator Booker T. Washington, Armstrong's prize student, took the same values and philosophical views as his former mentor. Washington held firmly to his beliefs that vocational education was the ideal route for most African Americans. Du Bois, also an influential African-American educator, strongly objected to Washington's educational program. He accused Washington of teaching lessons of work and money, which potentially encouraged African Americans to forget about the highest aims of life.

The first land-grant college provisions, known as the First Morrill Act, were enacted by the U. Congress on July 2, The statute articulated the appointment of public lands to the states based on their representation in Congress in The Morrill Act was one of the first congressional actions to benefit from the post—Civil War constitutional amendments.

By the late s Morrill Act funds were being distributed to the states, with the intention that they would foster educational opportunity for all students.

Following the Civil War, the expansion of the land-grant college system continued, with its implied focus on educational opportunities. However, with the close of the army's occupation to the old South, funds from the Morrill Act began to flow systemically to schools offering only all-white education. Congress attempted by various legislation to force racial equality, including equality of educational opportunity. However, the U. Supreme Court initiated a series of interpretations of the post—Civil War constitutional amendments that ultimately defeated these various legislative efforts.

Culminating with its decision finding the first Civil Rights Act unconstitutional, the Supreme Court held that the Fourteenth amendment only protected against direct discriminatory action by a state government.

What followed was a period of nearly seventy-five years when only modest gains were made in higher educational opportunity for minorities. Congress did pass a second Morrill Act , which required states with dual systems of education all-white and nonwhite to provide landgrand institutions for both systems. Basing their jurisdiction on the Supreme Court decision, Congress acted to curb direct state-sponsored discrimination.

Eventually, nineteen higher education institutions for African Americans were organized as land-grant institutions.

These institutions were founded to raise the aspirations of a generation of children of former slaves and to ensure that high quality higher education was provided for Americans of all races.

While efforts persisted throughout the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to reduce the funding to these colleges, the schools continued to function based on land-grant funds. Early in the twentieth century, vocational education was a prominent topic of discussion among American educators as schools struggled to meet the labor force needs consistent with the shift from an agrarian to an industrial economic base. In his address to Congress, President Theodore Roosevelt urged major school reform that would provide industrial education in urban centers and agriculture education in rural areas.

A powerful alliance supporting federal funding for vocational education was formed in when the American Federation of Labor AFL , who had long opposed such programs as discriminatory, lent its approval to the National Association of Manufacturers' NAM promotion of trade instruction in schools. Formed in , one of NAM's first projects was to investigate how education might provide a more effective means to help American manufacturers compete in expanding international markets.

The AFL joined the vocational reform movement believing its participation would help protect working-class interests by providing them with a voice at the table on education policy development with the emerging industrial economy. The strength of the combined lobby influenced Congress in to authorize President Woodrow Wilson to appoint a commission to study whether federal aid to vocational education was warranted.

Charles Prosser, a student of social efficiency advocate David Snedden, was principal author of the commission's report to Congress. Prosser considered separately administered, and narrowly focused, vocational training as the best available way to help nonacademic students secure employment after completing high school.

In its final report to Congress, the commission chaired by Georgia Senator Hoke Smith declared an urgent social and educational need of vocational training in public schools.

Federal support for vocational education began with the Smith-Hughes Act of Two Democratic lawmakers from Georgia, Senator Hoke Smith and Representative Dudley Mays Hughes, were chiefly responsible for this historic bill, which established vocational education, particularly agricultural education, as a federal program.

The act reflected the view of reformers who believed that youth should be prepared for entry-level jobs by learning specific occupational skills in separated vocational schools. According to Harvey Kantor and David B. Tyack, this brand of vocationalism had its critics, including the American philosopher and educator John Dewey, who believed that such specific skill training was unnecessarily narrow and undermined democracy.

The Smith-Hughes Act, however, firmly supported the notion of a separate vocational education system and supported courses offered by vocational schools. The act called for specific skill training, focused on entry-level skills, and helped establish separate state boards for vocational education. The Smith-Hughes Act and its successors until were largely designed to expand these separate vocational education programs, in an effort to retain more students in secondary education, and to provide trained workers for a growing number of semiskilled occupations.

These acts focused on basic support, providing funds for teachers and teacher training, and encouraging state support for vocational education through extensive funds-matching requirements. By the s, the vocational education system had been firmly established, and Congress recognized the need for a new focus. As a result, the Vocational Education Act, while still supporting the separate system approach by funding the construction of area vocational schools, broadened the definition of vocational education to include occupational programs in comprehensive high schools, such as business and commerce.

The act also included the improvement of vocational education programs and the provision of programs and services for disadvantaged and disabled students. Faced with initial evidence that localities were not responding to the new focus on improving programs and serving students with special needs, the Amendments to the Vocational Education Act backed each goal with specific funding.

This change set the stage for what has become the distinguishing feature of all such legislation since —the manner in which it seeks a compromise between the demands for improved vocational program quality and for increased vocational education opportunities for students with special needs. Separate funds set aside for disabled and disadvantaged students seemed an effective strategy, as it resulted in more funds expended on these groups and in increased enrollments.

Since there are few other sources of federal assistance for secondary special needs students other than students with disabilities , it is not surprising that other special populations were added to federal vocational education legislation over time. In , the needs of limited English proficient LEP students were addressed through provisions for bilingual vocational training; funds for Native American students were also added. In LEP students were made eligible for part of the disadvantaged set-aside, and provisions to eliminate sex bias and sex stereotyping in vocational education were added.

Education reforms focusing on secondary education began in the early s, prompted by concern about the nation's declining competitiveness in the international market, the relatively poor performance of American students on tests of educational achievement both nationally and internationally , and complaints from the business community about the low level of skills and abilities found in high school graduates entering the workforce.

This reform came in two waves. The first wave, sometimes characterized as academic reform, called for increased effort from the current education system: more academic course requirements for high school graduation, more stringent college entrance requirements, longer school days and years, and an emphasis on standards and testing for both students and teachers.

The basic message might be paraphrased, "work more, try harder, strive for excellence. Beginning in the mids, a second wave of school reform arose, based in part on the belief that the first wave did not go far enough to improve education for all students. The second wave, sometimes referred to as restructuring, called for changes in the way schools and the educational process were organized.

While restructuring proposals included school choice and site-based management, of particular interest in this report was the emphasis on improving the school-to-work transition for nonbaccalaureate youth by creating closer linkages between vocational and academic education, secondary and postsecondary institutions, and schools and workplaces.

The reform movement, particularly its first phase, received major impetus from the publication in of the National Commission on Excellence in Education's report A Nation at Risk.

This influential report observed that the United States was losing ground in international economic competition and attributed the decline in large part to the relatively low standards and poor performance of the American educational system. The report recommended many of the changes subsequently enacted in first-wave reforms: the strengthening of requirements for high school graduation, including the requirement of a core academic curriculum; the development and use of rigorous educational standards; more time in school or the more efficient use of presently available time; and better preparation of teachers.

The response to this report and related education reform initiatives was rapid and widespread. Marion Asche reported in that between the early and mids, more than education task forces had been organized in the United States. By the mids, forty-three states had increased course requirements for high school graduation; seventeen had developed stronger requirements for admission to state colleges and universities; thirty-seven had created statewide student assessment programs; twenty-nine had developed teacher competency tests; and twenty-eight had increased teacher licensure requirements.

Between and more than state laws affecting some aspect of the teaching profession had been enacted. The Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act of Pub. The act had two interrelated goals, one economic and one social. The economic goal was to improve the skills of the labor force and prepare adults for job opportunities—a long-standing goal traceable to the Smith-Hughes Act.

The social goal was to provide equal opportunities for adults in vocational education. In the late summer of , Congress passed the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Act of The STWOA emphasized preparing students with the knowledge, skills, abilities, and information about occupations and the labor market that would help them make the transition from school to postschool employment through school-based and work-based instructional components supported by a connecting activity's component.

Key elements of STWOA included a collaborative partnerships, b integrated curriculum, c technological advances, d adaptable workers, e comprehensive career guidance, f work-based learning, and g a step-by-step approach. Two major focus areas of this legislation were to increase accountability and provide states with more flexibility to use funds. In the United States of the early twenty-first century, vocational education has entered a new era.

There is increasing acknowledgement that the traditional educational focus on college-bound youth needs to change. Greater attention is being focused on work-bound youth, particularly those who will require less than baccalaureate education. There is increasing concern that the United States is not adequately preparing a growing pool of new workers—women, minorities, and immigrants—for productive, successful roles in the workforce.

Education is being urged to change the way it is preparing youth and adults to function in a global economy. All of these trends are bringing new importance to vocational education.

Technical Education and Vocational Training Act

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The study examined the productive participation of the physically challenged through Technical Vocational Education Training programmes in Rivers State. A population of registered mobility impaired and visually impaired persons were used for the study while a sample of was selected through purposive sampling technique. Three research questions were answered, and three null hypotheses were tested at 0. The instrument for data collection was a self-structure questionnaire developed by the researchers that was structured in the pattern of 5-point Likert rating scale of agreement and extent. The instrument was face and contents validated by three experts. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the research questions while z-test was used to test the hypotheses.

McCaslin Darrel Parks. Vocational education in the United States is the product of an extended evolutionary process. Economic, educational, and societal issues have repeatedly exerted influence on the definition of vocational education, as well as on how, when, where, and to whom it will be provided. There are many legal definitions of vocational education i. These legal definitions are critical since they specify how, for what purpose, and to what extent federal monies may be spent for vocational education.

The growth of education in Zambia since independence

TVET colleges mainly train young people to develop the skills, knowledge and attitudes that are needed in the labour market. They serve young people who want to enrol for vocational programmes after Grade 9 or after finishing school with a Grade 12, as well as learners who want to complete their schooling. Who can study at TVET colleges and what learning opportunities are available? TVET colleges cater for a wide variety of people who want to study career-focused vocational programmes.

Implementation of the competency-based curriculum by teachers of History in selected Secondary Schools in Lusaka district, Zambia. I The University of Zambia yvonnekmalambo gmail. The study investigated teachers of History's implementation of the competency-based teaching approaches in the teaching and learning of History in Lusaka district, Zambia.

This paper examines the complicated realities of TVE in Nigeria. In practice, indigenous education systems embedded a standard learning procedure which British colonial administration keyed into and standardised in non-formal arrangements through government departments. Therefore, the paper tracks the dis oriented education-industry relationship that existed after

Вирусы. Холод пронзил все ее тело.

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Просто все привезти. Абсолютно. Ничего не упустив. Беккер еще раз обвел глазами кучу вещей и нахмурился. Зачем АНБ вся эта рухлядь. Вернулся лейтенант с маленькой коробкой в руке, и Беккер начал складывать в нее вещи.

Акулы со скоростными модемами успеют скачать чудовищные объемы секретной информации через открывшееся окно. Из размышлений об этом кошмаре его вывела Соши, подбежавшая к подиуму со свежей распечаткой. - Я кое-что нашла, сэр! - возбужденно сказала.  - Висячие строки в источнике.

Сквозь отверстие в двери она увидела стол. Он все еще катился по инерции и вскоре исчез в темноте. Сьюзан нашла свои валявшиеся на ковре итальянские туфли, на мгновение оглянулась, увидела все еще корчившегося на полу Грега Хейла и бросилась бежать по усеянному стеклянным крошевом полу шифровалки.

Ответ был очень простым: есть люди, которым не принято отвечать. - Мистер Беккер, - возвестил громкоговоритель.  - Мы прибываем через полчаса. Беккер мрачно кивнул невидимому голосу. Замечательно.

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The term TVET parallels other types of education and training e.

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