File Name: introduction of food processing and technology .zip
- Overview of Food Processing Equipment
- Introductory Chapter: A Global Presentation on Trends in Food Processing
- Processed Food: What Is the Purpose of Food Processing?
Part 1 Basic principles: Properties of foods. Part 2 Ambient-temperature processing: Raw material preparation; Size reduction; Mixing and forming; Separation and concentration of food components; Food biotechnology; Irradiation; High-pressure processing; Minimal processing methods under development. Part 3 Processing by application of heat: Heat processing; Heat processing using steam or water; Pasteurisation; Heat sterilisation; Evaporation and distillation; Extrusion; Heat processing using hot air; Smoking; Baking and roasting; Frying; Heat processing by direct and radiated energy.
Overview of Food Processing Equipment
Reviewed: March 2nd Published: May 6th Food Processing. Nowadays food processing has reached a level that is hard to imagine. Food processing is almost omnipresent. Almost all food consumed in almost all settings is now processed in some way. Varied types of food processing have beneficial or even negative effects on food, diet quality, and human health [ 1 ]. A range of new food processing technologies has been investigated and developed to modify or replace traditional food processing techniques so that better quality and more consumer preference-oriented foods can be manufactured [ 2 ].
The focus has been on quality over the last decade, enhancing the process efficiency, safety, productivity, and stability of food products in a healthier way [ 3 ]. The nutritional quality of food is influenced by factors such as quality of raw material, transportation, processing techniques, packaging, storage, and the whole food chain farm to fork [ 4 , 5 ].
Food processing implies the use of clean, butchered, and harvested components to manufacture food products for the market demand. There are numerous ways to produce food [ 6 , 7 ]. Nowadays, an impressive displacement process is taking place worldwide within alimentary production patterns and systems, with regard to the ready-for-consumption food, which replaces traditional food based on fresh meals.
However, not much attention is being paid to food processing, when it comes to dietary guidelines, classifications of food products, or epidemiology studies [ 8 ]. Scientists in this industry regard food processing in various ways. Certain processes such as drying, nonalcoholic fermenting, skimming, pasteurization, freezing, and vacuum-packing are rightly considered as beneficial in the food industry. However, other processes are regarded as less beneficial or even harmful for human health, namely, charring, hydrogenation, carbon dioxide addition, alcoholic fermenting, salt-pickling, and sugaring [ 1 , 7 ].
Nowadays, a drastic change has been noticed in how compliance and its consequences are approached. Due to regulatory requirements, and to a much less tolerant and most knowledgeable public, the industry has been in the critical public eye and placed under a much more thorough scrutiny and examination than ever before. As a consequence, at the local and state levels, there has been an increasing demand of documentation, in terms of legislation.
It is very difficult to make a mistake and have no one find out about it. In the end, we are actually all consumers and expect safe food. Legislation is seeing a lot of issues related to allergens, organics, and package labeling [ 9 , 10 , 11 ]. Food safety technology has greatly interfered with and changed the way food industry specialists identify, react to, and communicate on specific food safety issues.
Thus, the Internet and social media have impacted the industry by allowing an instant information exchange, which, at times, can include true or even false data, hence rightly entitling food companies to have a correspondingly adequate reaction.
The legislation regarding the food industry attempts to regulate the management of pests, sanitation, and contamination with fewer toxic materials. The trap, however, lies in believing that laws or government can control food safety.
For managing the hazards involved and the control over food safety, the legislation needs to constantly improve alongside with its enforcement, according to the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points HACCP model [ 12 , 13 ]. Services, processes, or innovations, understood as new products, are recognized as an important instrument for companies belonging to the food industry to stand out from competitors and to satisfy consumer expectations [ 14 , 15 ].
In these circumstances, the demands of consumers are no longer limited to satisfying hunger. Food should provide the necessary nutrients while at the same time preventing nutrition-related diseases and improving physical and mental well-being [ 17 ]. Recent food industry innovations mainly regard new technical and scientific approaches in food processing, as well as the implementation of new food products on the market.
As such, researchers agree in stating that functional food represents one of the most rewarding and gratifying areas of research and innovation in the food industry [ 18 , 19 ]. The food industry is a key branch in the global economy. As a consequence, many authors highlighted its relevance for employment and economic output [ 9 , 11 , 14 ]. This classification is topical nowadays, but it is constantly innovating.
The major processes based on biotechnology are mainly used in the production of foods with specific functionalities. In this respect, genetic engineering constitutes an important support. The raw materials with modified composition constitute another promising area for producing foods with enhanced nutritional value. Functional food products have also been produced by the wide use of enzymes.
For example, milk protein concentrate with a decreased content of lactose [ 28 ] and fats with a controlled content of fatty acids [ 29 ] can be produced using the abovementioned techniques. Another important technique is the application of membrane technology, which is used in modifying the composition of foods and their functionality [ 30 ].
This process lends itself mostly to foods in a liquid medium. For example, this method has proven its usefulness by allowing separation and concentration of milk components without the proteins, bioactive substances, and flavor being altered [ 31 ]. In addition, various processes have been developed in the dairy industry, for instance, ultrafiltration [ 32 ], nanofiltration [ 33 ], electrodialysis [ 34 ], and lactoferrin [ 35 ].
Another technological process is the removal of antinutrients by means of supercritical fluid extraction. Antinutrients are compounds which are thought of as negative or non-healthy ones, such as fats, caffeine, cholesterol, etc. This technology has been mainly used since the s, for the elimination of caffeine from coffee [ 37 ] this improved technique is still used today [ 38 ] , alcohol from cider [ 39 ] and wine [ 40 ], and fat from foods such as French fries, onion rings, and snack foods [ 41 ].
This improved technique is used today for extraction of raspberry seed oil [ 42 ], extraction of oleoresins and plant phenolics [ 43 ], bioactive compounds from plants [ 44 ], and food quality and food safety evaluation [ 45 ]. The most important elements used for food fortification are iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate vitamin B9 , vitamin B12, other B vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 , vitamin C, vitamin D, calcium, selenium, fibers, proteins, and fatty acids [ 46 ].
Probiotics and prebiotics are part of the so-called foods that promote health. They are considered to be major nutrients that influence the physiology and gastrointestinal function [ 47 ]. The most used probiotic compounds are inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, fructans, lactulose, and galacto-oligosaccharides [ 51 ]. Radio frequency heating dielectric heating is a process by which a high-frequency radio wave is created using a generator for heating a dielectric material.
Heat is quickly generated in the center of the food [ 52 ]. Each food product has specific dielectric properties, and these depend on the viscosity, temperature, chemical composition, and other physiological properties of the food [ 53 ]. It is applied in the food industry for continuous and batch heat processes [ 54 ]; rapid defrosting of frozen fish, meat, and other processed materials or foodstuff [ 55 ]; baking, disinfecting, and sanitizing dry food products seeds, cereals, dried fruits, legumes ; and sterilizing solid or viscous packaged foods [ 53 , 54 ].
Any food that is exposed to the microwave is heated due to the electric and magnetic fields that generate heat [ 56 ]. The dielectric and magnetic properties of foods influence microwave activity. Due to the presence of water, microwave-treated liquid foods absorb electromagnetic energy very quickly [ 57 ].
Foods heat faster outside than indoors. Microwave heating is not uniform and results in nutrient losses due to the high temperature of the heated surface [ 58 ]. Microwave heating is used at home and at industrial level. At the household level, it is used for heating and thawing food, because it is a very fast method.
Ohmic heating is a process of Joule heating, electro-heating, or electro-conductive heating. Electricity flows through the food. This process compared to microwave and radio frequency heating has no penetration depth limitation. The heating is carried out evenly, without damaging the nutrients in the food [ 61 , 62 ]. Food products subjected to ohmic heating treatment are high-quality, value-added, and shelf-stable products. This process is also suitable for defrosting, pasteurization, sterilization, extraction, dehydration, fermentation, evaporation, peeling, bleaching, packaging, and heating of food at serving temperature [ 62 , 64 , 65 ].
The infrared process is between the ultraviolet energy region and the microwave. The far infrared is considered to be the most useful region for food processing, as most food components are absorbed by radiation in this region [ 66 , 67 ]. Infrared heating is an indirect way of heat.
At this stage electromagnetic energy enters food, adsorbs to the surface, and then converts to heat [ 58 , 67 ]. Heating by radiant energy depends on the characteristics and color of the food. IR radiation is used to change the quality of food by changing the flavor, aroma, and the color of the food surface [ 58 , 67 ].
Infrared heating is used in the food industry for roasting, cooking, baking, dehydrating, drying, pasteurizing, peeling, bleaching, and food processing [ 66 , 68 , 69 ]. Infrared heating can be combined for processes such as dehydration, cooking, baking, and freeze-drying [ 69 , 72 ].
Developing and optimizing the processes of novel food preservation have become a major trend in food processing nowadays. Thus, those used to obtain minimally processed foods stand out alongside the ones based on emerging physical techniques high-pressure processing, pulsed electric field processing, cold plasma treatment, ultrasound processing, irradiation, UV and pulsed light. These processes enable engineers and scientists to produce more nutritive, fresher, less processed, and safer foods [ 1 , 7 ].
Minimally processed products gained more attention due to health considerations, in the last decade. In comparison to thermal processing, nonthermal techniques are beneficial to maintain the freshness, nutritional properties, flavor, and color attributes, especially some thermal unstable compounds such as ascorbic acid and polyphenols.
More than that, novel nonthermal processing techniques show a potential application in the reduction of food immunoreactivity [ 74 ]. This processing method involves a loss in food quality, though thermal preservation methods provide safer foods.
Hence, minimizing the degradation of food quality by limiting the damage that heat can produce on the food constitutes the main objective of the nonthermal preservation methods.
They also imply the inactivation of those microorganisms and enzymes that are responsible for food degradation [ 7 , 73 ]. High hydrostatic pressure was first used in Japan in the s. It has been improved over the years and is now used worldwide. The aim of this process is to extract a considerable amount of bioactive compounds from foods and the enhancement of their bioavailability [ 79 , 80 ].
Sensory, nutritional, and functional properties of fruit and vegetable beverages have been slightly modified by means of the nonthermal processes in whose development and design scientists showed a great interest, in recent years [ 81 ]. As compared to conventional methods, processing has become cheaper in some cases as it requires a lower energy input, although the HHP equipment involves considerable costs [ 82 ]. This technology has been primarily focused as a substitute technology for heat processing.
Heat processing is used to destroy or inhibit the activity of damaged microorganisms or enzymes. It can be successfully used at room temperature, reducing the thermal energy required for heat processing, to make food products without unwanted changes, such as nutritional and sensory characteristics. As a minimal thermal process, high hydrostatic pressure can be applied to heat-sensitive foods to guarantee microbiological safety and quality characteristics in minimally processed products.
Therefore, the application of this process can provide high-quality pasteurized food products. Thus, high-pressure processing may provide fruit and vegetable products with suitable shelf life that maintain characteristics similar to fresh products, which consumers demand [ 81 , 84 , 85 ].
The critical factors in HHP process are shown in Table 1 , and their magnitude will depend on the microorganism or enzyme subject to inactivation [ 86 ] Table 2. The most frequently used probiotics [ 49 ].
Introductory Chapter: A Global Presentation on Trends in Food Processing
Romina Ronquillo. Food processing equipment is an umbrella term referring to the components, processing machines , and systems used to handle, prepare, cook, store, and package food and food products. Although this equipment is primarily aimed toward the transformation—i. Employed for food and food product applications ranging from bakery goods to beverages and dairy to produce, a wide range of food processing equipment is available to execute the various unit operations necessary during a complete production cycle, such as washing, separating, mixing, baking, freezing, and sealing. Depending on the demands of the operation and the overarching food processing application , this equipment can be designed and constructed to handle solid, semi-solid, or liquid food products by batch or continuously.
Food processing , any of a variety of operations by which raw foodstuffs are made suitable for consumption , cooking , or storage. A brief treatment of food processing follows. For fuller treatment of storage methods, see food preservation. Food processing generally includes the basic preparation of foods, the alteration of a food product into another form as in making preserves from fruit , and preservation and packaging techniques. A number of food-processing innovations have even resulted in new products, such as concentrated fruit juices, freeze-dried coffee, and instant foods. Foods and food supplements have also been processed from such hitherto untapped sources as oilseeds chiefly protein-rich soybeans and cottonseeds ; mutant varieties of crops; leaves, grasses, and aquatic plants; and highly nutritious fish meal and concentrates. Food processing Article Media Additional Info.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This book provides basic food engineering knowledge for beginners. The discipline of food processing conforms with actual food manufacturing flows and thus is readily comprehensible, although food engineering has great diversity as the common principles of operations for most food manufacturing processes are covered. This volume therefore endeavors to initially embody food manufacturing flows and pays careful attention to quantitatively detailing and explaining the manufacturing operations involved from an engineering point of view.
Why process foods? 1. Prevent, reduce, eliminate infestation of food with microbes, insects or other vermin. 2. Prevent microbial growth or toxin production by.
Processed Food: What Is the Purpose of Food Processing?
Food processing is any method used to turn fresh foods into food products. Food processing includes traditional heat treatment, fermentation, pickling, smoking, drying, curing and modern methods pasteurisation, ultra-heat treatment, high pressure processing, or modified atmosphere packaging. Some of the common methods are described below:. The food is heated to a high temperature. This process is called pasteurisation.
Reviewed: March 2nd Published: May 6th Food Processing. Nowadays food processing has reached a level that is hard to imagine. Food processing is almost omnipresent.
Food processing has come to be associated with ramen noodles, canned meat, and spongy snack cakes. The health concerns raised by these products have led many to assume that all processed foods are unhealthy, but do they deserve their reputation? Businesses use food processing techniques to transform raw foods and ingredients into new products.
What is food processing?
Черт побери, немедленно отключить. Мидж появилась в дверях со свежей распечаткой в руке. - Директор, Стратмору не удается отключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - Что?! - хором вскричали Бринкерхофф и Фонтейн. - Он пытался, сэр! - Мидж помахала листком бумаги.
Он попробовал плюхнуться на заднее сиденье, но промахнулся. Тело его сначала оказалось в воздухе, а потом - на жестком полу. Из тени на авенида дель Сид появилась фигура человека. Поправив очки в железной оправе, человек посмотрел вслед удаляющемуся автобусу. Дэвид Беккер исчез, но это ненадолго.
Si. Si! - вскрикивала она в интервалах между его рывками и впивалась ногтями ему в спину, стараясь ускорить его движения. Все смешалось в ее голове - лица бесчисленных мужчин, склонявшиеся над ней, потолки гостиничных номеров, в которые она смотрела, мечты о том, что когда-нибудь все это кончится и она заведет детей… Внезапно, без всякого предупреждения, тело немца выгнулось, замерло и тут же рухнуло на .
Ей в голову пришла и другая мысль - известно ли Хейлу, что Танкадо уже нет в живых. Сьюзан стала быстро закрывать файлы электронной почты Хейла, уничтожая следы своего посещения. Хейл ничего не должен заподозрить -. Ключ к Цифровой крепости, внезапно осенило ее, прячется где-то в глубинах этого компьютера. Когда Сьюзан закрывала последний файл, за стеклом Третьего узла мелькнула тень.
А пока сваливай-ка ты отсюда домой. Сегодня же суббота. Найди себе какого-нибудь парня да развлекись с ним как следует. Она снова вздохнула. - Постараюсь, Джабба.
Наличными, прямо сейчас, - сказал Беккер, доставая из кармана пиджака конверт. Я очень хочу домой.
В вашем номере проститутка. Немец нервно посмотрел на дверь в ванную. Он явно колебался. - Ja, - признался он. - Вам известно, что в Испании это противозаконно.
Buenas noches, Mujeres Espana. Чем могу служить. Беккер держался той же версии: он - немецкий турист, готовый заплатить хорошие деньги за рыжеволосую, которую сегодня нанял его брат. На этот раз ему очень вежливо ответили по-немецки, но снова сказали, что рыжих девочек у них. - Keine Rotkopfe, простите.
Затем начал читать надпись вслух: - Q… U… 1…S… пробел… С, Джабба и Сьюзан в один голос воскликнули: - Пробел? - Джабба перестал печатать. - Там пробел. Беккер пожал плечами и вгляделся в надпись.
Не нужно было так резко с ней говорить. Но у него не выдержали нервы. Он слишком долго говорил ей полуправду: просто есть вещи, о которых она ничего не знала, и он молил Бога, чтобы не узнала .