File Name: 2nd to 4th digit ratios fetal testosterone and estradiol writer.zip
Buck, R. Williams, I.
- The digit ratio (2D:4D) and economic preferences: no robust associations in a sample of 330 women
- The use of digit ratios as markers for perinatal androgen action
- The second-to-fourth digit ratio correlates with aggressive behavior in professional soccer players
Such gestational exposures are known to enhance male-typical behavior.
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The digit ratio (2D:4D) and economic preferences: no robust associations in a sample of 330 women
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, , 31 7 : Biomedical and Environmental Sciences , , 31 7 : Tables Article views PDF downloads 21 Cited by. The ratio of the second-to-fourth digit length 2D:4D has been shown to be sexually dimorphic, with males having lower mean than females [ 1 ] and the ratio relates to masculinity and femininity in adults. Hormonal modulation during puberty and postnatal sex hormone exposure have minimal effect on 2D:4D because it is slightly affected by puberty and there is a little increase during childhood once it is determined prenatally. This trait is likely to be a viable biological marker of early developmental processes [ 1 ].
The use of digit ratios as markers for perinatal androgen action
Background: The second to fourth digit ratio 2D:4D ratio is suggested to be a negative correlate of prenatal testosterone. Little is known about the role of the 2D:4D ratio in relation to serum and urinary androgens for physical performance in female athletes. We aimed to compare the 2D:4D ratio in female Olympic athletes with sedentary controls, and to investigate the 2D:4D ratio in relation to serum and urinary androgens and physical performance in the athletes. Methods: This cross-sectional study included Swedish female Olympic athletes participating in power, endurance and technical sports and sedentary controls. The 2D:4D ratio was calculated using direct digit measurements. Serum androgens and urinary androgen metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The athletes performed standardized physical performance tests and body composition was established by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
The second-to-fourth digit ratio correlates with aggressive behavior in professional soccer players
Whether this aggressive behavior is the result of innate factors or acquired elements is a matter for debate. Animal studies have indicated a link between incidents of aggression and the individual level of circulating testosterone. However, results in relation to primates, particularly humans, are less clear cut and are at best only suggestive of a positive association in certain contexts 1. It has been observed in male athletes that testosterone levels before a competition exhibit an increase that precedes the start of the competition and reflects the quality of the performance. In fact, testosterone levels measured in athletes with high-level performances are increased compared with those detected in low-level athletes 2.
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