File Name: what is research design and methodology .zip
- Essentials of Research Design and Methodology
- Research Methods Guide: Research Design & Method
- Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper
Essentials of Research Design and Methodology
Kaufman and Nadeen L. Cohen and R. All rights reserved. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections or of the United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appro- priate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.
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Festinger, David. To Helene and my family G. To Christina and Emma D. To Tracy, Ashley, and Elijah D. The series features books on a variety of topics, such as statistics, psychological testing, and research design and methodology, to name just a few. For the experienced professional, books in the series offer a concise yet thorough review of a specific area of expertise, including nu- merous tips for best practices.
Students can turn to series books for a clear and concise overview of the important topics in which they must become proficient to practice skillfully, efficiently, and ethically in their chosen fields. Wherever feasible, visual cues highlighting key points are utilized alongside systematic, step-by-step guidelines. Chapters are focused and succinct. Topics are organized for an easy understanding of the essential material related to a particular topic.
Theory and research are continually woven into the fabric of each book, but always to enhance the practical application of the material, rather than to sidetrack or overwhelm readers.
With this series, we aim to challenge and assist readers in the behavioral sciences to aspire to the highest level of competency by arming them with the tools they need for knowledgeable, informed practice.
The purposes of Essentials of Research Design and Methodology are to dis- cuss the various types of research designs that are commonly used, the ba- sic process by which research studies are conducted, the research-related considerations of which researchers should be aware, the manner in which the results of research can be interpreted and disseminated, and the typi- ix TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine!
This book is ideal for those readers with minimal knowledge of re- search as well as for those readers with intermediate knowledge who need a quick refresher regarding particular aspects of research design and methodology.
For those readers with an advanced knowledge of research design and methodology, this book can be used as a concise summary of basic research techniques and principles, or as an adjunct to a more ad- vanced research methodology and design textbook. Finally, even for those readers who do not conduct research, this book will become a valuable addition to your bookcase because it will assist you in becoming a more educated consumer of research. Being able to evaluate the appropriate- ness of a research design or the conclusions drawn from a particular re- search study will become increasingly more important as research be- comes more accessible to nonscientists.
In that regard, this book will improve your ability to efficiently and effectively digest and understand the results of a research study. Alan S. Kaufman, PhD, and Nadeen L.
We would also like to thank Susan Matties for her research assistance. Additional thanks go to Dr. Vir- ginia Brabender for introducing us to John Wiley and Sons. Broadly defined, the purpose of research is to answer questions and acquire new knowledge. Research is the primary tool used in virtually all areas of science to expand the fron- tiers of knowledge. For example, research is used in such diverse scientific fields as psychology, biology, medicine, physics, and botany, to name just a few of the areas in which research makes valuable contributions to what we know and how we think about things.
Among other things, by con- ducting research, researchers attempt to reduce the complexity of prob- lems, discover the relationship between seemingly unrelated events, and ultimately improve the way we live.
Although research studies are conducted in many diverse fields of sci- ence, the general goals and defining characteristics of research are typically the same across disciplines.
For example, across all types of science, re- search is frequently used for describing a thing or event, discovering the relationship between phenomena, or making predictions about future events.
In short, research can be used for the purposes of description, ex- planation, and prediction, all of which make important and valuable con- tributions to the expansion of what we know and how we live our lives. In addition to sharing similar broad goals, scientific research in virtually all fields of study shares certain defining characteristics, including testing hypotheses, careful observation and measurement, systematic evaluation of data, and drawing valid conclusions.
No longer is research the private domain of re- search professors and scientists wearing white lab coats. To the contrary, the results of research studies are frequently reported on the local evening news, CNN, the Internet, and various other media outlets that are acces- sible to both scientists and nonscientists alike. For example, in recent years, we have all become familiar with research regarding the effects of stress on our psychological well-being, the health benefits of a low- cholesterol diet, the effects of exercise in preventing certain forms of can- cer, which automobiles are safest to drive, and the deleterious effects of pollution on global warming.
We may have even become familiar with re- search studies regarding the human genome, the Mars Land Rover, the use of stem cells, and genetic cloning. Not too long ago, it was unlikely that the results of such highly scientific research studies would have been shared with the general public to such a great extent. It is therefore not surprising that many people are unfamiliar with the various types of research designs, the basics of how research is conducted, what research can be used for, and the limits of us- ing research to answer questions and acquire new knowledge.
Rapid Ref- erence 1. Before addressing these important issues, however, we should first briefly review what science is and how it goes about telling us what we know. Research studies come in many different forms, and we will discuss sev- eral of these forms in more detail in Chapter 5.
For now, however, we will focus on two of the most common types of research—correlational re- search and experimental research. Correlational research: In correlational research, the goal is to deter- mine whether two or more variables are related. A variable is anything that can take on different values, such as weight, time, and height. For example, a researcher may be interested in determining whether age is related to weight.
In this example, a researcher may discover that age is indeed re- lated to weight because as age increases, weight also increases. If a corre- lation between two variables is strong enough, knowing about one vari- able allows a researcher to make a prediction about the other variable.
There are several different types of correlations, which will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 5. It is important to point out, however, that a cor- relation—or relationship—between two things does not necessarily mean that one thing caused the other. To draw a cause-and-effect conclu- sion, researchers must use experimental research. This point will be em- phasized throughout this book.
Experimental research: In its simplest form, experimental research in- volves comparing two groups on one outcome measure to test some hy- pothesis regarding causation. For example, if a researcher is interested in the effects of a new medication on headaches, the researcher would ran- domly divide a group of people with headaches into two groups. One of the groups, the experimental group, would receive the new medication be- ing tested. The other group, the control group, would receive a placebo medication i.
Besides receiving the different medications, the groups would be treated exactly the same so that the re- search could isolate the effects of the medications. After receiving the medications, both groups would be compared to see whether people in the experimental group had fewer headaches than people in the control group. Assuming this study was properly designed and properly designed studies will be discussed in detail in later chapters , if people in the experi- mental group had fewer headaches than people in the control group, the researcher could conclude that the new medication reduces headaches.
This definition of science highlights some of the key differences between how scientists and non- scientists go about acquiring new knowledge. By doing so, scientists are able to draw valid and reliable conclusions about what they are studying. In addition, scientific knowledge is not based on the opinions, feelings, or intuition of the scientist.
Instead, scientific knowledge is based on objec- tive data that were reliably obtained in the context of a carefully designed research study. In short, scientific knowledge is based on the accumulation of empirical evidence Kazdin, a , which will be the topic of a great deal of discussion in later chapters of this book. The defining characteristic of scientific research is the scientific method summarized in Rapid Reference 1. First described by the En- glish philosopher and scientist Roger Bacon in the 13th century, it is still generally agreed that the scientific method is the basis for all scientific in- vestigation.
The scientific method is best thought of as an approach to the acquisition of new knowledge, and this approach effectively distinguishes science from nonscience. To be clear, the scientific method is not actually a single method, as the name would erroneously lead one to believe, but rather an overarching perspective on how scientific investigations should proceed.
It is a set of research principles and methods that helps re- searchers obtain valid results from their research studies. Because the sci- entific method deals with the general approach to research rather than the content of specific research studies, it is used by researchers in all different scientific disciplines.
Research Methods Guide: Research Design & Method
Before beginning your paper, you need to decide how you plan to design the study. The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data. Note that the research problem determines the type of design you should use, not the other way around! De Vaus, D. Research Design in Social Research. Research Methods Knowledge Base. The function of a research design is to ensure that the evidence obtained enables you to effectively address the research problem logically and as unambiguously as possible.
Research Design A research design is the 'procedures for collecting, analyzing, interpreting and reporting data in research studies' (Creswell.
Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper
Research design is the framework of research methods and techniques chosen by a researcher. The design allows researchers to hone in on research methods that are suitable for the subject matter and set up their studies up for success. There are three main types of research design: Data collection, measurement, and analysis. The type of research problem an organization is facing will determine the research design and not vice-versa. The design phase of a study determines which tools to use and how they are used.
Research Methods sociology-focused. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Methods intro. Quantitative Methods advanced. What is the difference between Research Design and Research Method?
Pamela Baxter 19 Estimated H-index:
Table of contents
Before beginning your paper, you need to decide how you plan to design the study. The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data. Note that your research problem determines the type of design you can use, not the other way around! Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara. Part 1, What Is Research Design? The Context of Design.