Ship Design And Construction Pdf Takeoff

ship design and construction pdf takeoff

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Rising procurement costs for Navy ships are a matter of concern for both Navy officials and Members of Congress who track Navy-related issues. The issue for Congress is how to respond to rising Navy ship procurement costs. Aside from reducing planned ship procurement rates, one option would be to reduce Navy ship procurement costs by shifting from currently planned designs to designs with lower unit procurement costs.

ship design construction

The buzz has created a lot of promise of an imminent paradigm shift and productivity and lifecycle improvements in the AEC sector, and plenty of benefits are cited in the literature. Consequently, the word has reached the shipbuilding industry as well, which faces many similar productivity and lifecycle challenges as the AEC industry, and which is seeking similar advancements in digital tools that can bring around the change. As a result, the Finnish shipbuilding industry expressed interest in exploring what are the BIM-enabled best practices in the AEC sector, and which of these can potentially be transferred to the shipbuilding industry.

This research explored these issues. Findings suggest that due to lack of mutual communication, the professionals across each industry believe the other to be doing better. Building information modeling BIM provides not only an advanced design tool, but also an efficient management tool for the Architecture Engineering and Construction AEC sector.

At the same time, the European including Finnish shipbuilding industry has undergone a fundamental shift from a labor-intensive industry to a capital and know-how dominated high-tech industry Tholen and Ludwig A large number of software and CAD tools are used in each stage of the design process to evaluate a variety of characteristics and life phases Whitfield et al. Despite the demonstrated benefits of 3D CAD tools, certain limitations of CAD tools have hindered the development of the design process in shipbuilding industry, which is actively searching for better solutions.

In such a scenario, given several similarities between the AEC and shipbuilding industry e. Therefore, this research mainly aims at: 1 exploring the realized practical benefits of BIM in AEC industry and 2 studying whether BIM can be a potential solution to improve the productivity of shipbuilding projects.

Although BIM has been widely promoted, it is agreed that there are gaps between the potential benefits and what has been realized in practice so far e.

Lu and Li ; Barlish and Sullivan Therefore, in order to understand how BIM can potentially benefit shipbuilding industry, it is important to understand how it actually benefits AEC industry in practice. In order to assess which BEPs can be adapted to improve the productivity of shipbuilding projects, it is important to understand 1 the current state of 3D CAD tools in shipbuilding industry, 2 the views of shipbuilding professionals, and 3 which BEPs can potentially be transferred to improve the efficiency of shipbuilding process.

Some of key benefits include: faster and effective processes, reduced rework, visualization, information sharing and reusability; better design; controlled whole - life costs and environmental data; better production quality and sequencing; automated assembly; better client service scheduling, sequencing coordination, etc.

With an object-oriented approach, BIM extends the capability of traditional 3D CAD approach by defining and applying intelligent relationships between the elements in the building model Singh et al. The information management capabilities and inbuilt intelligence allow resolving conflicts, speed up solutions, and keep projects on time and on budget. As with the AEC industry, and unlike other industries such as automobile or aircraft, Shipbuilding has an individual nature.

Therefore, the design and production details are almost different every time Okumoto et al. Similarly, the ship manufacturing processes show complex patterns over a long period of time Kim et al.

Each block is designed and then assembled in the assembly shop near the dock. Large blocks i. Finally, large blocks are moved to the dock and welded together to form an entire ship Kim et al. A large number of software tools are used in each stage of the design process to evaluate a variety of characteristics and life phases Whitfield et al.

CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing Sarcar et al.

In general, 3D CAD contributes to more efficient ship design through, but not limited to 3D visualization , design simulation and interference checking. Interference-checking i. Communication and coordination for collaborative design process and concurrent engineering, including with manufacturing engineers Solesvik , Baba and Nobeoka , are also facilitated by 3D CAD.

It is argued that certain limitations of CAD tools have hindered further development of shipbuilding design process. These include: 1 The lack of interoperability among different CAD systems: While various data formats international standards have been studied and discussed in the industry, there is still no open standard widely shared by major CAD vendors in the shipping industry, and 2 The inability of CAD tools to support initial design: While 3D models are used in the detailed design stage, the early design stage is typically based on 2D drawings Alsonso et al.

Seven interviews with shipbuilding professionals were carried out to 1 explore the current state of 3D CAD in Finnish shipbuilding industry, and 2 identify areas that need further development.

Based on the results of the first three steps, discussion was carried out to identify which BEPs could be potentially transferred to shipbuilding industry to improve the productivity. What are the most important benefits of BIM that you have seen in practice? How do the successful companies realize these benefits through practices? The second group of interviews were carried out in a similar manner as the first group.

Seven interview questions were formed, aiming at finding out whether these identified BEPs could be transferred or not. What are the benefits or practices enabled by the integrated solution or object-oriented 3D model?

Which of these listed practices have been applied in shipbuilding already? G: shipyard in Finland, specialized in building cruise ships, car-passenger ferries, technically demanding special vessels and offshore projects. H: leading European consulting and eng. Offers design, engineering, PM services to clients in the marine industry. I: developer and supplier of 3D software for the plant- and ship building industries. These practices were commonly accepted and widely recognized by the seven interviewees as the best and thus were studied further.

Clash detection has been widely understood as the main reason for companies in AEC industry to start using BIM from the beginning. It is also one of the most extensively used features of BIM. However, it is important to differentiate between clash detection and collision detection. It was noted that during the interviews and often in reality, people in AEC industry use collision detection and clash detection interchangeably.

In contrast, there is a subtle but important difference between these two concepts. Collision detection is the process of identifying incongruous objects in different models that are found to be occupying the same space in the master, whereas clash detection can also refer to clashes in scheduling of activities, for example, order of assembly.

Similarly, clashes in rules can also be identified. In general, there are three types of clashes in a typical construction project, i. Therefore, collision detection only refers to the detection of hard clash. In the context of this research, the term clash detection is used to cover all three types of clashes. Besides design visualizations, since BIM produces accurate and detailed building models, these models can also be used for advanced visualizations, such as creating images for in process-design reviews, lighting simulations, and highly polished marketing materials Autodesk Accurate design visualizations produced by BIM tools contributes to open communication within the design team, facilitating shared understanding of designs.

During the construction process, 3D visualization also benefits both site supervisor, and construction worker. It directly influences the accuracy of cost estimation, including counting the number of items associated with a particular construction project, determining the associated materials and labor costs, and formulating a bid or estimate as part of the bidding process.

The fourth frequently mentioned BEP during the interviews was project scheduling , which is one of the key processes during the development of construction projects. Based on the interview results with the shipbuilding professionals, it can be concluded that ship design is generally carried out through One CAD solution.

It means that different ship design disciplines are using the same CAD tool or CAD tools from the same software vendor.

By using the same CAD tool for different design disciplines, interoperability issues are reduced. The situation in Company G is slightly different. Several designs tools are used by different disciplines such as hull, outfitting and interior.

Both hull and outfitting designs are conducted in 3D. Since Company G is specialized in building cruise ships, interior design is also one of the key design disciplines, but interior design is carried out with 2D CAD tool.

Consequently, models built by different design tools in different data format need to be first converted manually into one single format, once a week. Once the hull model is integrated into the outfitting model, the rest of modelling work is carried out in the integrated model.

Several benefits of the One CAD solution were mentioned by the interviewees. In general, the benefits can be divided into two groups, i. These models are not merely a 3D visualizations of objects, but also contains up-to-date information relevant to the objects. Everyone involved in the project can get a clear view of the designs and avoid misunderstanding.

With 3D models, workers can better plan their work before the actual work starts, and get familiar with the surroundings. Easy and Accurate Quantity Takeoff : A bill of materials can be exported directly from 3D models, which lists quantities of all the materials needed for assembly or prefabrication.

The One CAD solution in Company G, despite using several CAD tools at different design stages and disciplines, is achieved after the hull model has been integrated into the outfitting model. The rest of the modeling work happens in the integrated model. The key advantages of using this approach in Company G are 1 Interoperability among different design models , and 2 Comprehensive collision detection , where collision detection is firstly carried out automatically by CAD software and then performed by designers, i.

Despite the key benefits of using the One CAD solution, the following limitations have triggered the interest of these shipbuilding professionals in seeking insights from BIM usage in AEC. No Open Standard: There is no open standard in shipbuilding industry. Although the One CAD solution reduces the interoperability requirements, it can lock shipyards to specific proprietary tools.

This also reduces the ability of different shipyards to benefit from the tools and technical developments developed by the others. As explained by Interviewee 8, the lag of interior design is mainly due to the fact that most of the ships constructed are not for cruising. Integration with Other Software Applications in Finnish Shipbuilding Industry: Interviewees reported that besides CAD software used for design, there are other software systems used for functions such as project management, document management, material management, etc.

Therefore, it is important that these tools can smoothly integrate with the 3D CAD tools, which is not the case currently.

Based on discussions with shipbuilding professionals, it was found that there are already several similar or more advanced practices enabled by 3D CAD in shipbuilding industry. Collision Detection: In both AEC and shipbuilding industry, collision detection is an essential practice to find out possible collisions between different models and thus to ensure the integration of these models is carried out successfully.

Although there are three types of clashes that BIM software can detect, and collision detection only refers to the detection of hard clash, it is likely that 3D CAD is at a more advanced stage of collision detection than BIM. This is mainly because collision detection in shipbuilding industry is more complicated than that in AEC. Three factors have contributed to a higher degree of complexity of collision detection in shipbuilding industry. First of all, there are usually higher number of systems in ships.

Secondly, ships have greater space constraints and the utilization of space is more compacted in shipbuilding than in AEC. The third factor is that collision detection in shipbuilding is carried out following stricter standards than in AEC, due to the higher safety requirements of shipbuilding.

This is quite understandable, as the damage can be fatal when a ship fails when sailing. The benefits generated from utilizing 3D visualizations are more or less similar in AEC and shipbuilding industries. Nonetheless, for shipbuilding professionals 3D is understood as a routine or a norm rather than a benefit. Quantity Takeoff: The processes of generating quantity takeoffs in AEC and shipbuilding industries are very similar as well. In both industries, the process of quantity takeoff is carried out computer-assisted.

Accurate quantity information is incorporated in 3D models and thus can be easily generated and reused. However, there is likely a significant difference between shipbuilding and AEC industries regarding the accuracy of cost estimates at the very early stage of the project.

Material take off

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manual, or that the use of any information, apparatus, method, or process disclosed in this report may not infringe privately on the ship design and construction process in our shipyards. The first Manual "material take-offs".


Ship Design - Methodologies of Preliminary Design

The buzz has created a lot of promise of an imminent paradigm shift and productivity and lifecycle improvements in the AEC sector, and plenty of benefits are cited in the literature. Consequently, the word has reached the shipbuilding industry as well, which faces many similar productivity and lifecycle challenges as the AEC industry, and which is seeking similar advancements in digital tools that can bring around the change. As a result, the Finnish shipbuilding industry expressed interest in exploring what are the BIM-enabled best practices in the AEC sector, and which of these can potentially be transferred to the shipbuilding industry.

Instead, this unit cost guide will aid you in developing a good estimate of costs for any painting operation on any project. Think of this manual as one good estimat-ing tool. To assist the existing ship classes as guides for the size and capabilities of the.

Have you ever noticed that ships, unlike most aeroplanes do not have the same kinds of rudders? The type of rudder that would suit a particular ship is a decision that needs to be based on various factors like hull form , speed, propeller design , the structural arrangement of the stern , clearance between the propeller and the stern, and also a few hydrodynamic factors that dictate the flow of water aft of the propeller. How ship designers go about deciding the type of rudder, is actually an iterative process.

Вы должны… Сьюзан вырвала руку и посмотрела на него с возмущением. - Мне кажется, коммандер приказал вам уйти. - Но монитор.

Ship Design Construction

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What is Design for Ship Production. Optional zero digit for zone design and construction. Complicated manual layout Material Take-Offs.

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