File Name: severe space weather events understanding societal and economic impacts .zip
- Analysis of Severe Space Weather on Critical Infrastructures
- Space weather
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Space threats pose nontrivial issues to the safety of the population and to the correct functioning of critical infrastructures. In this paper we analyze the most significant threats posed by solar wind in terms of impact due to both direct consequences on satellite and critical infrastructure so as the subsequent domino effects. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Analysis of Severe Space Weather on Critical Infrastructures
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Solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections CMEs [1, 2, 3] are events occurring in the solar corona and heliosphere that can have a major negative impact on our technology dependent society . These induced currents can lead to surges that have the potential to melt transformers of long distance transmission lines causing large scale blackouts. A report by the National Research Council concluded that a solar superstorm, similar to one observed in called the Carrington event , could cripple the entire US power grid for months and lead to an economic damage of 1 to 2 trillion dollars . In response, the White House released the National Space Weather Strategy and Space Weather Action Plan  in as a roadmap for producing research that focuses on predicting and mitigating the effects of solar eruptive activity. One of the suggested routes to accomplishing the goals set out by this roadmap was to use machine learning to predict extreme space weather events, which was reiterated recently by the current administration . Our benchmark dataset is intended as a testbed for solar physicists and machine learning practitioners to test new ideas and methods on a cleaned, integrated, and readily-available dataset comprised of validated information from multiple sources. Successful flare predictions via machine learning models trained and tested on this dataset intend to 1 tackle a central problem in space weather forecasting and 2 help identify physical mechanisms pertaining, or even giving rise, to solar flares.
Space weather is a branch of space physics and aeronomy , or heliophysics , concerned with the time varying conditions within the Solar System, including the solar wind , emphasizing the space surrounding the Earth, including conditions in the magnetosphere , ionosphere , thermosphere , and exosphere. The term space weather was first used in the s and came into common usage in the s. For many centuries, the effects of space weather were noticed but not understood. Displays of auroral light have long been observed at high latitudes. In , George Graham reported that the needle of a magnetic compass was regularly deflected from magnetic north over the course of each day. This effect was eventually attributed to overhead electric currents flowing in the ionosphere and magnetosphere by Balfour Stewart in , and confirmed by Arthur Schuster in from analysis of magnetic observatory data.
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Copy the HTML code below to embed this book in your own blog, website, or application. An uncorrected copy, or prepublication, is an uncorrected proof of the book. We publish prepublications to facilitate timely access to the committee's findings. The final version of this book has not been published yet.
ТРАНСТЕКСТ все равно справился. - Время. - Три часа. Стратмор поднял брови. - Целых три часа. Так долго. Сьюзан нахмурилась, почувствовав себя слегка оскорбленной.
Тем не менее риск велик: если нас обнаружат, это, в сущности, будет означать, что он своим алгоритмом нас напугал.
Выбравшись наружу, Беккер оглядел стоянку в поисках такси. Ни одной машины. Он подбежал к крепко сбитому охраннику. - Мне срочно нужно такси.
Сьюзан не слышала ни единого слова. - Останься со мной, - увещевал ее голос.