File Name: difference between lytic and lysogenic cycle .zip
- 21.2B: The Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles of Bacteriophages
- lytic and lysogenic cycle pdf
The lambda phage multiplies using lysogenic cycle, which does not cause the host cell to die. Lysogeny is characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formation of a circular replicon in the bacterial cytoplasm.
21.2B: The Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles of Bacteriophages
Bacteriophage , also called phage or bacterial virus , any of a group of viruses that infect bacteria. Bacteriophages were discovered independently by Frederick W. Bacteriophages also infect the single-celled prokaryotic organisms known as archaea.
Thousands of varieties of phages exist, each of which may infect only one type or a few types of bacteria or archaea. Phages are classified in a number of virus families; some examples include Inoviridae, Microviridae, Rudiviridae, and Tectiviridae.
Like all viruses, phages are simple organisms that consist of a core of genetic material nucleic acid surrounded by a protein capsid. There are three basic structural forms of phage: an icosahedral sided head with a tail, an icosahedral head without a tail, and a filamentous form. During infection a phage attaches to a bacterium and inserts its genetic material into the cell.
After that a phage usually follows one of two life cycles, lytic virulent or lysogenic temperate. Lytic phages take over the machinery of the cell to make phage components. They then destroy, or lyse, the cell, releasing new phage particles. Lysogenic phages incorporate their nucleic acid into the chromosome of the host cell and replicate with it as a unit without destroying the cell. Under certain conditions lysogenic phages can be induced to follow a lytic cycle.
Other life cycles, including pseudolysogeny and chronic infection, also exist. In pseudolysogeny a bacteriophage enters a cell but neither co-opts cell-replication machinery nor integrates stably into the host genome. Pseudolysogeny occurs when a host cell encounters unfavourable growth conditions and appears to play an important role in phage survival by enabling the preservation of the phage genome until host growth conditions have become advantageous again.
In chronic infection new phage particles are produced continuously over long periods of time but without apparent cell killing. Phages have played an important role in laboratory research. The first phages studied were those designated type 1 T1 to type 7 T7. The T-even phages, T2, T4, and T6, were used as model systems for the study of virus multiplication.
In Alfred Day Hershey and Martha Chase used the T2 bacteriophage in a famous experiment in which they demonstrated that only the nucleic acids of phage molecules were required for their replication within bacteria. The results of the experiment supported the theory that DNA is the genetic material. For his work with bacteriophages, Hershey was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in In the s American biochemist George P.
Smith developed a technology known as phage display , which allowed for the generation of engineered proteins. Gene III encodes a protein expressed on the phage virion surface. Thus, gene III fusion proteins taken up by phages were displayed on the surfaces of virion particles. Researchers could then use antibodies developed to recognize the foreign protein fragment to purify fusion phage cultures , thereby effectively amplifying the foreign gene sequence for further study.
British biochemist Gregory P. Winter subsequently refined phage display technology for the development of human antibody proteins. Such proteins could be used to treat diseases in humans with less risk of inducing potentially dangerous immune reactions compared with previous therapeutic antibodies derived from animals.
Adalimumab Humira , used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis , was the first fully human antibody made via phage display to be approved by the U. Food and Drug Administration approved in For their discoveries relating to phage display, Smith and Winter were awarded a share of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Phage therapy was not successful, and after the discovery of antibiotics in the s, it was virtually abandoned. With the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, however, the therapeutic potential of phages has received renewed attention. Bacteriophage Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites.
Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Khan Academy - Bacteriophage. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.
Alternative Titles: bacterial virus, phage. The cycle of infection results in the death of the host cell and the release of many virus particles, called virions. General structure of T4 bacteriophage and a model of its mode of attachment to, and injection of its DNA into, a bacterial cell.
Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. From a host cell infected by one bacteriophage, hundreds of bacteriophage progeny are produced. In American biologists Alfred D. Hershey and Martha Chase prepared two populations of bacteriophage particles.
In one population, the outer protein coat…. Transduction is an efficient means of transferring DNA between bacteria because DNA enclosed in the bacteriophage is protected from physical decay and from attack by enzymes in the environment and is injected directly into cells by the bacteriophage. However, widespread gene transfer by means…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! Email address.
By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.
lytic and lysogenic cycle pdf
This phage—host system displays behaviors that are characteristic of both pseudolysogeny and lysogeny including a high rate of spontaneous induction and chromosomal integration of the prophage. The environmental parameters tested included salinity, temperature, a rapid temperature shift, and degree of culture aeration. Conversely, the lowest titers of phage were produced under low salinity or rate of aeration. In general, conditions that stimulated growth resulted in greater lytic phage production, whereas slow growth favored lysogeny. These results may have implications for environmental controls of the lysogenic switch in natural populations of marine bacteria. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
The lytic cycle involves the reproduction of viruses using a host cell to manufacture more viruses; the viruses then burst out of the cell. The lysogenic cycle involves the incorporation of the viral genome into the host cell genome, infecting it from within.
Viruses are often very specific as to which hosts and which cells within the host they will infect. This feature of a virus makes it specific to one or a few species of life on earth. So many different types of viruses exist that nearly every living organism has its own set of viruses that try to infect its cells.
Microcystis aeruginosa is a freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacterium capable of producing the potent hepatotoxin, microcystin. Despite increased interest in this organism, little is known about the viruses that infect it and drive nutrient mobilization and transfer of genetic material between organisms.
Женщина с кровотечением… плачущая молодая пара… молящаяся маленькая девочка. Наконец Беккер дошел до конца темного коридора и толкнул чуть приоткрытую дверь слева. Комната была пуста, если не считать старой изможденной женщины на койке, пытавшейся подсунуть под себя судно.
Мужчина рядом нахмурился. - Turista, - усмехнулся. И прошептал чуть насмешливо: - Llamo un medico. Вызвать доктора. Беккер поднял глаза на усыпанное родинками старческое лицо.
Если честно - да, - Не надо так, Сью, Ты меня оскорбляешь. Глаза Сьюзан сузились. Она терпеть не могла, когда он называл ее Сью.