File Name: gyn obs history taking and physical examination .zip
Gynaecology or gynecology see spelling differences is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive system vagina , uterus , and ovaries. Outside medicine, the term means "the science of women ". Its counterpart is andrology , which deals with medical issues specific to the male reproductive system. Almost all modern gynaecologists are also obstetricians see obstetrics and gynaecology. In many areas, the specialities of gynaecology and obstetrics overlap.
The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus , dated to about BC, deals with women's health —gynaecological diseases, fertility, pregnancy, contraception, etc. The text is divided into thirty-four sections, each section dealing with a specific problem and containing diagnosis and treatment; no prognosis is suggested. Treatments are non surgical, comprising applying medicines to the affected body part or swallowing them.
The womb is at times seen as the source of complaints manifesting themselves in other body parts. Texts of Ayurveda , an Indian traditional medical system, also provides details about concepts and techniques related to Gynaecology. Aristotle is another strong source for medical texts from the 4th century BC with his descriptions of biology primarily found in History of Animals, Parts of Animals, Generation of Animals.
He was the chief representative of the school of physicians known as the " Methodists ". Marion Sims is widely considered the father of modern gynaecology. While performing these surgeries he invited men physicians and students to watch invasive and painful procedures while the women were exposed. On one of the women, named Anarcha , he performed 30 surgeries without anesthesia.
Physicians and students lost interest in assisting Sims over the course of his backyard practice, and he recruited other enslaved women, who were healing from their own surgeries, to assist him. In Sims went on to found the Woman's Hospital in New York, the first hospital specifically for female disorders. In some countries, women must first see a general practitioner GP; also known as a family practitioner FP prior to seeing a gynaecologist. If their condition requires training, knowledge, surgical procedure, or equipment unavailable to the GP, the patient is then referred to a gynaecologist.
In the United States , however, law and many health insurance plans allow gynaecologists to provide primary care in addition to aspects of their own specialty. With this option available, some women opt to see a gynaecological surgeon for non-gynaecological problems without another physician's referral. As in all of medicine, the main tools of diagnosis are clinical history and examination. Gynaecological examination is quite intimate, more so than a routine physical exam. It also requires unique instrumentation such as the speculum.
The speculum consists of two hinged blades of concave metal or plastic which are used to retract the tissues of the vagina and permit examination of the cervix , the lower part of the uterus located within the upper portion of the vagina.
Gynaecologists typically do a bimanual examination one hand on the abdomen and one or two fingers in the vagina to palpate the cervix, uterus, ovaries and bony pelvis. It is not uncommon to do a rectovaginal examination for complete evaluation of the pelvis, particularly if any suspicious masses are appreciated.
Male gynaecologists may have a female chaperone for their examination. An abdominal or vaginal ultrasound can be used to confirm any abnormalities appreciated with the bimanual examination or when indicated by the patient's history.
There is some crossover in these areas. For example, a woman with urinary incontinence may be referred to a urologist. As with all surgical specialties, gynaecologists may employ medical or surgical therapies or many times, both , depending on the exact nature of the problem that they are treating.
Pre- and post-operative medical management will often employ many standard drug therapies, such as antibiotics , diuretics , antihypertensives , and antiemetics. Additionally, gynaecologists make frequent use of specialized hormone -modulating therapies such as Clomifene citrate and hormonal contraception to treat disorders of the female genital tract that are responsive to pituitary or gonadal signals. Surgery, however, is the mainstay of gynaecological therapy.
For historical and political reasons, gynaecologists were previously not considered "surgeons", although this point has always been the source of some controversy. Modern advancements in both general surgery and gynaecology, however, have blurred many of the once rigid lines of distinction. The rise of sub-specialties within gynaecology which are primarily surgical in nature for example urogynaecology and gynaecological oncology have strengthened the reputations of gynaecologists as surgical practitioners, and many surgeons and surgical societies have come to view gynaecologists as comrades of sorts.
As proof of this changing attitude, gynaecologists are now eligible for fellowship in both the American College of Surgeons and Royal Colleges of Surgeons , and many newer surgical textbooks include chapters on at least basic gynaecological surgery. Some of the more common operations that gynaecologists perform include: . In the UK the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists , based in London, encourages the study and advancement of both the science and practice of obstetrics and gynaecology.
This is done through postgraduate medical education and training development, and the publication of clinical guidelines and reports on aspects of the specialty and service provision.
The RCOG International Office works with other international organisations to help lower maternal morbidity and mortality in under-resourced countries. Gynaecologic oncology is a subspecialty of gynaecology, dealing with gynaecology-related cancer. Improved access to education and the professions in recent decades has seen women gynecologists outnumber men in the once male-dominated medical field of gynecology. Speculations on the decreased numbers of male gynecologist practitioners report a perceived lack of respect from within the medical profession, limited future employment opportunities and even questions to the motivations and character of men who choose the medical field concerned with female sexual organs.
Surveys of women's views on the issue of male doctors conducting intimate examinations show a large and consistent majority found it uncomfortable, were more likely to be embarrassed and less likely to talk openly or in detail about personal information, or discuss their sexual history with a man. The findings raised questions about the ability of male gynaecologists to offer quality care to patients.
In the United States , it has been reported that 4 in 5 students choosing a residency in gynaecology are now female. There have been a number of legal challenges in the US against healthcare providers who have started hiring based on the gender of physicians.
Dr Mircea Veleanu argued, in part, that his former employers discriminated against him by accommodating the wishes of female patients who had requested female doctors for intimate exams. So far, all legal challenges by male gynaecologists to remove patient choice have failed due to there being protection in law for 'bona fide occupational qualification' which in previous cases involving wash-room attendants and male nurses have recognized justification for gender-based requirements for certain jobs.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Science of the treatment of diseases of the female sexual organs and reproductive tract. A dilating vaginal speculum , a tool for examining the vagina , in a model of the female reproductive system.
Govindan November Abhinav Publications. Nazrul Islam 4 April Springer Singapore. Susan B. Marion Sims, the Father of Modern Gynecology. Retrieved 11 October Beacon Press. University Press of America. Lewis Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. Retrieved Mastering the Female Pelvis. American Medical Association.
Retrieved 24 October Archived from the original on American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Kurt Froelich assaulted patients in his office and the hospital". Patient Education and Counseling.
Archived from the original PDF on Swedish clinics ban women from choosing female doctors". Retrieved 25 April Gynaecology Gynecologic oncology Maternal—fetal medicine Obstetrics Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Urogynecology. Reproductive health. Compulsory sterilization Contraceptive security Genital integrity Circumcision controversies Genital modification and mutilation Intersex.
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Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons Wikisource. Female reproductive system. Gynaecological cancers , infertility , dysmenorrhea.
Evaluation of the Obstetric Patient
Most women, particularly those seeking general preventive care, require a complete history and physical examination as well as a gynecologic evaluation. Gynecologic evaluation may be necessary to assess a specific problem such as pelvic pain , vaginal bleeding , or vaginal discharge. Obstetric evaluation focuses on issues related to pregnancy. Many women expect their gynecologist to provide general as well as gynecologic health care. General medical care may include counseling on general health and routine screening for the following:.
A comprehensive collection of clinical examination OSCE guides that include step-by-step images of key steps, video demonstrations and PDF mark schemes. A comprehensive collection of OSCE guides to common clinical procedures, including step-by-step images of key steps, video demonstrations and PDF mark schemes. A collection of communication skills guides, for common OSCE scenarios, including history taking and information giving. A collection of data interpretation guides to help you learn how to interpret various laboratory and radiology investigations. A comprehensive collection of medical revision notes that cover a broad range of clinical topics. A collection of anatomy notes covering the key anatomy concepts that medical students need to learn.
Gynaecology or gynecology see spelling differences is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive system vagina , uterus , and ovaries. Outside medicine, the term means "the science of women ". Its counterpart is andrology , which deals with medical issues specific to the male reproductive system. Almost all modern gynaecologists are also obstetricians see obstetrics and gynaecology. In many areas, the specialities of gynaecology and obstetrics overlap. The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus , dated to about BC, deals with women's health —gynaecological diseases, fertility, pregnancy, contraception, etc.
HISTORY & CLINICALEXAMINATION IN OBSTETRICS kirstenostherr.orgM NAZ ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OBGYN CMC,SMBBMU LA DRUG AND ALLERGY HISTORY Current medications Medications taken at any time.
General Gynecologic Evaluation
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This book, based on non-interactive question-and-answer format, offers an essential guide for medical students who need to prepare for oral exams or clinical visits. Starting from specific clinical situations the volume provides clear questions on the theory related to the cases. Each question is followed by correct answers that summarize the main information.
Gynecological history taking involves a series of methodical questioning of a gynecological patient with the aim of developing a diagnosis or a differential diagnosis on which further management of the patient can be arranged. This further treatment may involve examination of the patient, further investigative testing or treatment of a diagnosed condition. There is a basic structure for all gynecological histories but this can differ slightly depending on the presenting complaint. When taking any history in medicine it is essential to understand what the presenting complaint means and what the possible causes differential diagnosis of the presenting complaint may be.
Беккер с трудом вел мотоцикл по крутым изломам улочки. Урчащий мотор шумным эхо отражался от стен, и он понимал, что это с головой выдает его в предутренней тишине квартала Санта-Крус. В данный момент у него только одно преимущество - скорость.
Перед сердечным приступом мистер Танкадо не почувствовал ничего, кроме легкого укола. - Травматическая пуля, - задумчиво повторил Беккер. - Вот откуда шрам.
Не будучи религиозной, она не рассчитывала услышать ответ на свою молитву, но вдруг почувствовала внезапную вибрацию на груди и испуганно подскочила, однако тут же поняла: вибрация вовсе не была рукой Божьей - она исходила из кармана стратморовского пиджака. На своем Скайпейджере он установил режим вибрации без звонка, значит, кто-то прислал коммандеру сообщение. Шестью этажами ниже Стратмор стоял возле рубильника. В служебных помещениях ТРАНСТЕКСТА было черно как глубокой ночью.
Горячий воздух снизу задувал под юбку.
Нужно ввести ключ, останавливающий червя. Все очень все. Мы признаем, что у нас есть ТРАНСТЕКСТ, а Танкадо вручает нам шифр-убийцу. Мы вводим ключ и спасаем банк данных.
О Боже! - воскликнул он в ужасе. - Esta muerta, - прокаркал за его спиной голос, который трудно было назвать человеческим. - Она мертва.
Командир подводной лодки мог получить последние спутниковые фотографии российских портов, но не имел доступа к планам действий подразделений по борьбе с распространением наркотиков в Южной Америке. Эксперты ЦРУ могли ознакомиться со всеми данными об известных убийцах, но не с кодами запуска ракет с ядерным оружием, которые оставались доступны лишь для президента. Сотрудники лаборатории систем безопасности, разумеется, не имели доступа к информации, содержащейся в этой базе данных, но они несли ответственность за ее безопасность. Как и все другие крупные базы данных - от страховых компаний до университетов, - хранилище АНБ постоянно подвергалось атакам компьютерных хакеров, пытающих проникнуть в эту святая святых.
- Всего лишь какие-то обрывки, в полном виде - .
Я занесу им, а вы, когда увидите мистера Густафсона, скажете ему, где его паспорт. - Подождите! - закричал Ролдан. - Не надо впутывать сюда полицию. Вы говорите, что находитесь в центре, верно.
Откуда такая уверенность. - Не я один его ищу. Американская разведка тоже идет по следу.
- Нам нужны точные цифры. - Звездочка, - повторила Сьюзан, - это сноска. Соши прокрутила текст до конца раздела и побелела. - О… Боже ты. - В чем дело? - спросил Джабба.
На авиалиниях работают одни бездушные бюрократы.