Articles On Financial Markets And Institutions Pdf

articles on financial markets and institutions pdf

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A collection of the most cited articles published in the Journal of Finance over the last 5 years. During the — financial crisis, firms with high social capital, as measured by corporate social responsibility CSR intensity, had stock returns that were four to seven percentage points higher than firms with low social capital. This evidence suggests that the trust between a firm and both its stakeholders and investors, built through investments in social capital, pays off when the overall level of trust in corporations and markets suffers a negative shock.

Financial markets are markets where financial transactions are conducted. Financial transactions generally refer to creation or transfer of financial assets, also known as financial instruments or securities. Financial transactions channel funds from investors who have an excess of available funds to issuers or borrowers who must borrow funds to finance their spending.

Financial market

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Financial Markets and Institutions:. Jackson Barngetuny.

Benard omenda. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Research findings indicate that there is positive correlation between presence of financial markets and institution and private sector growth.

This explains the development disparities between south and north. China is an example where efforts to install financial markets and institutions has yielded positive results. Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya included is said to be lagging behind in putting adequate and effective markets and institutions so is its lack-luster performance in private sector expansion.

Financial system must be able to develop and manage appropriate intermediaries and financial instruments to help mobilize and channel funds for the private sector development. This calls for installation of transparent and responsible institutions to supervise and regulate operation and management of markets and markets participants.

Markets and institutions facilitate private investment through various channels and means for both local and foreign. Presence of adequate financial institution accelerate both local and international trade by opening up new markets necessary for development of private sector.

Availability of various financial instruments makes it possible to raise funds and manage risks encouraging confidence and growth. Dynamic education system is necessary to guarantee quality labour-force with continuous innovative skills to install and manage markets and institutions to steer development in the private sector, which is backed by synergy between new technology and new knowledge.

It also promotes stronger marketing strategy to help gathers and disseminate market intelligence for product improvement and new product development necessary to sustain private sector growth and development. This has become a key cog in reforms wheel that has created disparities between the nations and regions.

Financial markets and institutions are powerful tools for mobilizing savings, channeling funds for private investments, and raising capital for start-ups or expanding businesses in the private sector. A broad-based financial system is able to induce and sustain credit creation facilitating multiplier effect through wealth creation to improve quality of life. Lack of proper financial markets and institutions impedes trade and investment in the private sector perpetuating prolonged economic stagnation.

The issue highlighted to be responsible for the woes are the poor state of economic institutions. Statistics show that the country has actually seen real income fall in the last half a century Penn World Tables in contrast to majority other countries in the region where real income has typically doubled since Poor legal and institutional frameworks leaving property rights in uncertainty has eroded investment confidence in the private sector.

Institutions governing transactions and financial markets often fail to provide business and citizens — especially small-scale enterprises and poor households — with means to save, insure and obtain credit. In a region where financial transactions rely heavily on the informal system, both local and foreign investors are keen to see efficient and effective legal redress structures operational.

It would require attitude change and approach to educate the population about the benefits. This seems to have created a financially illiterate population with less disposable income to invest or spend to spur growth and development of the private sector.

Africa, especially the Sub-Saharan Africa SSA regions, is still bearing the brunt of the least developed region even after half a century of political freedom because of slow pace to reform and develop its financial markets and institutions to induce and encourage investment in the private sector.

Lack of proper ways and means to promote financial literacy has been a big impediment to business development and financial securities across the world, particularly the developing nations. Parliament, as the law making body, should play a proactive role by making sure that there are adequate legislations protecting property rights. Corporate governance, integrity, transparency and accountability are very pertinent while building strong financial markets.

Without which, there is imminent threat to growth and development. The institutions remain largely fragmented with substantial gaps in financing economic activities by private agent. It also suggested that continuous poor performance of financial system can be partly explained by the high degree of financial fragmentation Aryeetey et. The private sector investors need clear governance and legal structures to give confidence about fall back mechanism, which could be done by, building new institutions and modernizing the existing ones to seal off any leakage in the financial system to support and sustain private sector growth.

For institutional development to penetrate the continent, Africa should be cautiously weaned on taking along its cultural diversity to generate affinity and acceptance. In the research findings UNU-WIDER , in SSA economies, formal institutions co-exist alongside informal traditional institutions as a result of modern institutional structures being superimposed on the traditional society, often without necessary adaptations.

The financial markets and institutions in most developing worlds still suffer from imperfect, costly and incomplete information seen in a plethora of informal bodies hardly worth classifying as effective and complete. What is lacking? Let us vaguely call it investment education.

Without requisite education, the private sector ends up with a heap of dead businesses, when they fail to compete or lose focus.

In his book, Economics for a Developing World, Michael Todaro underscores the importance of human resource. Just as a warning, this should not be tied to the wan method of rote learning, but designed to equip the interested leaner with knowledge that would make existing business expand and other potential entrepreneurs, roll up sleeves and work. This education should excite the learner on a particular segment of business, not the characteristic copious notes for passing theory.

This scenario means the private sector is under siege, is shrinking, and slowly repelling because it does not have success stories. Investing in human capital is another way to take private sector development a notch higher. There should be collaboration among nations to enhance free labour mobility across the global markets to reduce the high rate of unemployment. There should be a clear policy focus on public and private sector investments targeting education and on-the-job training to increase efficiency in the private sector and at the same time create more opportunities.

More and better educated labour-force is a prerequisite for rapid economic growth and social equity necessary for a progressive private sector. In an enlightened society, capital mobilization, domestic saving and repatriation of capital are made more realistic to provide more finance for investments. Quality education will guarantee a high quality labour that can leverage on deepening capital resources and technological innovation to solve business and economic problem.

This will create a culture of knowledge sharing within and between organization, which will in turn encourage innovation and competition necessary for private sector growth. Above all it must be able to equip learners with skills for continuous learning and creating new knowledge through entire lifetime. According to Robert B.

In knowledge economy, new knowledge is not only the input but also an output of the economy. The creation and sharing of new knowledge feed into the economy to generate a knowledge—driven, virtuous cycle of sustained growth.

In a place like China where there has not been any serious political governance reforms since the start of communism in , it has, however, carried out vigorous market reforms since It cites how it embraced some international standards and practices.

As a result, China has become a beneficiary of rapid economic expansion with a sustained growth rate of double-digit figures for more than a decade. However, authorities must be wary rampant increase in counterfeit and sub-standards goods. For instance, there have been various complaints from consumers and standards watchdogs on sub- standards and counterfeit products from some developing nations.

This can serious undermine the efforts by genuine and innovative private investors and overall economic growth and development. The research concluded that there is evidence that the development of financial markets, institutions, and instruments have robustly contributed to economic growth in China. Private sector development and presence of working markets to sustain expansion is unique to and spectacular in China, notwithstanding its political democracy.

Meaningful reform agenda should not consign financial and economic reforms to the back burner. Fiscal and financial System reform For faster private sector development, governments should accelerate privatization of the State Owned Enterprises SOE. Governments had better remain as the regulator and supervisor of the private sector by setting up appropriate investment and other policy incentives to attract local and foreign investments.

Take the credit rating as a tool in the financial sector. Infrastructure is the backbone of sustainable economic growth and development. If all the public utilities were to be left to the government, like has been the case for a long time, the impact would be slower and clumsier with the possibility of stopping investment. Involvement of the private sector in the area could directly spur investment progress. Worrying is the trend where the entrepreneurs have to contend with poor roads, railways, and telecommunications everyday in pursuit of profits.

The private sector should be allowed to build roads just like they have done and excelled in telecommunications. Bannock G. As financial markets are experiencing the convergence of the banking, insurance and securities industries, commensurate legal and financial reforms should be undertaken to accommodate the changes.

This can deepen and encourage private sector to participate in project financing and development. A policy to guide the Public-Private Partnership PPP arrangement would attract more investors and at the same time facilitate creation of favourable investment environment. The model can be used in heavy capital infrastructure like roads, telecommunication, airport, and electricity generation among others.

This policy direction is likely to add investment opportunities and also acts as an enabler for business in the private sector. To be left squarely on the heavy shoulders of the government is maintaining and strengthening role of strategic planning of infrastructure sectors.

It, thus, should identify priority areas for private sector participation and the level of complementary support. Others were reducing government intervention in credit allocation, loosing interest rates controls, recommending standard accounting and prudential norms. In developing economies, many people do not get access to banking services and instead are left to the insecure traditional money lenders and pyramid schemes. It behoves governments to open up the banking sectors to allow more players in the market.

However, central banks should increase the capital adequacy requirement for the commercial banks in pursuit of stable financial base. Policies should be in place to allow banks to raise finance from the public through capital markets.

Capital adequacy can also be addressed by encouraging small indigenous banks to merge or go for strategic alliances with foreign banks. Commercial banks should develop effective methods for their screening process and have procedures for taking collateral before advancing loans.

Related to this should be the setting up of mechanisms for loan monitoring especially the actual projects in order to reduce high occurrence of non-performing loans. Among other gains, this is expected to spur healthy competition within the private sector.

Commercial banks should be allowed and encouraged to open up branches without restriction if they meet the criteria in order to reach more people through retail banking.

Free interest rates and micro-credits will encourage broader participation which will boost private sector expansion through market efficiency and excellence of business processes. Another imminent challenge facing the monetary authorities, particularly in the SSA, is inflation.

Financial Markets

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A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives at low transaction costs. Some of the securities include stocks and bonds , raw materials and precious metals , which are known in the financial markets as commodities. The term "market" is sometimes used for what are more strictly exchanges , organizations that facilitate the trade in financial securities, e. Much trading of stocks takes place on an exchange; still, corporate actions merger, spinoff are outside an exchange, while any two companies or people, for whatever reason, may agree to sell stock from the one to the other without using an exchange. Trading of currencies and bonds is largely on a bilateral basis, although some bonds trade on a stock exchange, and people are building electronic systems for these as well, to stock exchanges. There are also global initiatives such as the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 10 which has a target to improve regulation and monitoring of global financial markets.

Financial Markets and Institutions:

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Open access journal. KB P from from November 24, The results of dissertations for the degree of Doctor and Candidate of Sciences may be published in a scientific Journal on the basis of Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine dated December 28, The journal publishes the fundamental and applied research results, conceptual and empirical articles, analytical thematic studies and critical reviews.

Subscription price IJFMD addresses the advancement of contemporary research in the field of financial markets and derivatives. It is an internationally competitive, peer-reviewed journal dedicated to serve as the primary outlet for theoretical and empirical research in all areas of international markets and derivatives.

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Не было ни страха, ни ощущения своей значимости - исчезло. Он остался нагим - лишь плоть и кости перед лицом Господа.

Первое упоминание о меняющемся открытом тексте впервые появилось в забытом докладе венгерского математика Джозефа Харне, сделанном в 1987 году. Ввиду того что компьютеры, действующие по принципу грубой силы, отыскивают шифр путем изучения открытого текста на предмет наличия в нем узнаваемых словосочетаний, Харне предложил шифровальный алгоритм, который, помимо шифрования, постоянно видоизменял открытый текст. Теоретически постоянная мутация такого рода должна привести к тому, что компьютер, атакующий шифр, никогда не найдет узнаваемое словосочетание и не поймет, нашел ли он искомый ключ. Вся эта концепция чем-то напоминала идею колонизации Марса - на интеллектуальном уровне вполне осуществимую, но в настоящее время выходящую за границы человеческих возможностей. - Откуда вы взяли этот файл? - спросила .

Most Downloaded Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions & Money Articles

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