File Name: philip auslander postmodernism and performance writer.zip
People have studied it from various angles and disciplines arriving at important partial insights.
Performance art is an artwork or art exhibition created through actions executed by the artist or other participants. It may be live, through documentation, spontaneously or written, presented to a public in a Fine Arts context, traditionally interdisciplinary. It had an important and fundamental role in 20th century avant garde art.
Performance art is an artwork or art exhibition created through actions executed by the artist or other participants. It may be live, through documentation, spontaneously or written, presented to a public in a Fine Arts context, traditionally interdisciplinary.
It had an important and fundamental role in 20th century avant garde art. It involves four basic elements: time, space, body, and presence of the artist, and the relation between the creator and the public. The actions, generally developed in art galleries and museums, can take place in the street, any kind of setting or space and during any time period.
The themes are commonly linked to life experiences of the artist themselves, or the need of denunciation or social criticism and with a spirit of transformation. The term "performance art" and "performance" became widely used in the s, even though the history of performance in visual arts dates back to futurist productions and cabarets from the s.
The discipline is linked to happening , the Fluxus movement, body art and conceptual art. The definition and historical and pedagogical contextualization of performance art is controversial. One of the handicaps comes from the term itself, which is polysemic, and one of its meanings relates to the scenic arts. This meaning of performance in the scenic arts context is opposite to the meaning of performance art, since performance art emerged with a critical and antagonistic position towards scenic arts.
Performance art only adjoins the scenic arts in certain aspects such as the audience and the present body, and still not every performance art piece contains these elements. The meaning of the term in the narrower sense is related to postmodernist traditions in Western culture.
From about the mids into the s, often derived from concepts of visual art, with respect to Antonin Artaud , Dada , the Situationists , Fluxus , installation art , and conceptual art , performance art tended to be defined as an antithesis to theatre, challenging orthodox art forms and cultural norms. The ideal had been an ephemeral and authentic experience for performer and audience in an event that could not be repeated, captured or purchased. Performance art is a term usually reserved to refer to a conceptual art which conveys a content-based meaning in a more drama-related sense, rather than being simple performance for its own sake for entertainment purposes.
It largely refers to a performance presented to an audience, but which does not seek to present a conventional theatrical play or a formal linear narrative, or which alternately does not seek to depict a set of fictitious characters in formal scripted interactions. It therefore can include action or spoken word as a communication between the artist and audience, or even ignore expectations of an audience, rather than following a script written beforehand.
Some types of performance art nevertheless can be close to performing arts. Such performance may use a script or create a fictitious dramatic setting, but still constitute performance art in that it does not seek to follow the usual dramatic norm of creating a fictitious setting with a linear script which follows conventional real-world dynamics; rather, it would intentionally seek to satirize or to transcend the usual real-world dynamics which are used in conventional theatrical plays.
Performance artists often challenge the audience to think in new and unconventional ways, break conventions of traditional arts, and break down conventional ideas about "what art is". As long as the performer does not become a player who repeats a role, performance art can include satirical elements; use robots and machines as performers, as in pieces of the Survival Research Laboratories ; involve ritualised elements e. Shaun Caton ; or borrow elements of any performing arts such as dance, music, and circus.
Some artists, e. As genres of performance art appear body art , fluxus-performance, happening , action poetry , and intermedia. Performance art is a form of expression that was born as an alternative artistic manifestation. The discipline emerged in parallel to dadaism, under the umbrella of conceptual art. The movement was led by Tristan Tzara , one of the pioneers of Dada. Western culture theorists have set the origins of performance art in the beginnings of the 20th century, along with constructivism , Futurism and Dadaism.
Dada was an important inspiration because of their poetry actions, which drifted apart from conventionalisms, and futurist artists, specially some members of Russian futurism , could also be identified as part of the starting process of performance art.
The Cabaret Voltaire was founded in Zurich Switzerland by the couple Hugo Ball and Emmy Hennings for artistic and political purposes and was a place where new tendencies were explored. Located on the upper floor of a theater, whose exhibitions they mocked in their shows, the works interpreted in the cabaret were avant garde and experimental.
It is thought that the Dada movement was founded in the ten square meter locale. On its brief existence—barely six months, closing the summer of —the Dadaist Manifesto was read and it held the first Dada actions, performances, and hybrid poetry, plastic art, music and repetitive action presentations. Founders such as Richard Huelsenbeck , Marcel Janco , Tristan Tzara , Sophie Taeuber-Arp and Jean Arp participated in provocative and scandalous events that were fundamental and the basis of the foundation for the anarchist movement called Dada.
Dadaism was born with the intention of destroying any system or established norm in the art world. Not only was it a way of creating, but of living; it created a whole new ideology. It promoted change, spontaneity, immediacy, contradiction, randomness and the defense of chaos against the order and imperfection against perfection, ideas similar to those of performance art.
They stood for provocation, anti-art protest and scandal, through ways of expression many times satirical and ironic.
The absurd or lack of value and the chaos protagonized [ clarification needed ] their breaking actions with traditional artistic form. Futurism was an artistic avant garde movement that appeared in It first started as a literary movement, even though most of the participants were painters.
In the beginning it also included sculpture, photography, music and cinema. The First World War put an end to the movement, even though in Italy it went on until the s. One of the countries where it had the most impact was Russia.
The futurists spread their theories through encounters, meetings and conferences in public spaces, that got close to the idea of a political concentration, with poetry and music-halls, which anticipated performance art.
The Bauhaus , founded in Weimar in , included an experimental performing arts workshops with the goal of exploring the relationship between the body, space, sound and light. The Black Mountain College , founded in the United States by instructors of the original Bauhaus who were exiled by the Nazi Party, continued incorporating experimental performing arts in the scenic arts training twenty years before the events related to the history of performance in the s.
In the s and s, the action painting technique or movement gave artists the possibility of interpreting the canvas as an area to act in, rendering the paintings as traces of the artist's performance in the studio  According to art critic Harold Rosenberg , it was one of the initiating processes of performance art, along with abstract expressionism. Jackson Pollock is the action painter par excellence, who carried out many of his actions live.
It was a painting movement founded in by art critic Pierre Restany and painter Yves Klein , during the first collective exhibition in the Apollinaire Gallery in Milan.
Pierre Restany created various performance art assemblies in the Tate Modern , amongst other spaces. The members of the group saw the world as an image, from which they took parts and incorporated them into their work; they sought to bring life and art closer together.
One of the other movements that anticipated performance art was the Japanese movement Gutai , who made action art or happening. They rejected capitalist consumerism, carrying out ironic actions with latent aggressiveness object breaking, actions with smoke. In the late s, diverse land art artists such as Robert Smithson or Dennis Oppenheim created environmental pieces that preceded performance art in the s. Works by conceptual artists from the early s, such as Sol LeWitt , who made mural drawing into a performance act, were influenced by Yves Klein and other land art artists.
It uses nature as a material wood, soil, rocks, sand, wind, fire, water, etc. The artwork is generated with the place itself as a starting point.
The result is sometimes a junction between sculpture and architecture, and sometimes a junction between sculpture and landscaping that is increasingly taking a more determinant role in contemporary public spaces. When incorporating the artist's body in the creative process, it acquires similarities with the beginnings of performance art. Portrait of Valentine de Saint-Point in the space of creation. Portrait of Willem de Kooning , action painting painter in his studio.
Installation by Gutai Group, in the Venice Biennial. Installation by Dennis Oppenheim in Hesse, Germany. Land art work by Robert Smithson. Portrait of Pierre Restany in one of his openings. In the s, with the purpose of evolving the generalized idea of art and with similar principles of those originary from Cabaret Voltaire or Futurism , a variety of new works, concepts and a growing number of artists led to new kinds of performance art.
Movements clearly differentiated from Viennese Actionism , avant garde performance art in New York City, process art , the evolution of The Living Theatre or happening , but most of all the consolidation of the pioneers of performance art. The term Viennese Actionism Wiener Aktionismus comprehends a brief and controversial art movement of the 20th century, which is remembered for the violence, grotesque and visual of their artworks. Hermann Nitsch presented in his Theatre of Orgies and Mysteries Orgien und Mysterien Theater , pioneer of performance art, close to scenic arts.
In the early s, New York City harbored many movements, events end interests regarding performance art. Amongst others, Andy Warhol began creating films and videos,  and mid decade he sponsored The Velvet Underground and staged events and performative actions in New York, such as the Exploding Plastic Inevitable , that included live rock music, explosive lights and films.
The Living Theatre is a theater company created in in New York. It is the oldest experimental theatre in the United States. After Beck's death in , the company member Hanon Reznikov became co-director along with Malina. Because it is one of the oldest random theatre or live theatre groups nowadays, it is looked upon by the rest.
It was a theatre campaign dedicated to transformation of the power organization of an authoritarian society and hierarchical structure. The Living Theatre chiefly toured in Europe between and , and in the U. A work of this period, Paradise Now , was notorious for its audience participation and a scene in which actors recited a list of social taboos that included nudity, while disrobing.
Fluxus , a Latin word that means flow , is a visual arts movement related to music, literature, and dance. Its most active moment was in the s and s. They proclaimed themselves against the traditional artistic object as a commodity and declared themselves a sociological art movement. Fluxus was informally organized in by George Maciunas — This movement had representation in Europe, the United States and Japan. Language is not the goal, but the mean for a renovation of art, seen as a global art.
As one of the movement's founders, Dick Higgins , stated:. Fluxus started with the work, and then came together, applying the name Fluxus to work which already existed. It was as if it started in the middle of the situation, rather than at the beginning.
Robert Filliou places Fluxus opposite to conceptual art for its direct, immediate and urgent reference to everyday life, and turns around Duchamp's proposal, who starting from Ready-made , introduced the daily into art, whereas Fluxus dissolved art into the daily, many times with small actions or performances. John Cage was an American composer, music theorist , artist, and philosopher.
A pioneer of indeterminacy in music , electroacoustic music , and non-standard use of musical instruments , Cage was one of the leading figures of the post-war avant-garde. Critics have lauded him as one of the most influential composers of the 20th century.
Process artists saw art as pure human expression. Process art defends the idea that the process of creating the work of art can be an art piece itself. Artist Robert Morris predicated "anti-form", process and time over an objectual finished product.
Wardrip-Fruin and Montfort in The New Media Reader , "The term 'Happening' has been used to describe many performances and events, organized by Allan Kaprow and others during the s and s, including a number of theatrical productions that were traditionally scripted and invited only limited audience interaction.
Often the spectators became an active part of the act without realizing it. The works by performance artists after showed many times influences from the political and cultural situation that year.
Postmodernism and space
Drawing on speech act theory, performance theorist Philip Auslander argues that documentation can do more than describe; rather it has the capacity to produce its own event. Speaking of language, Austin calls statements whose utterance constitutes action in itself performatives e. I am suggesting that performance documents are not analogous to constatives, but to performatives: in other words, the act of documenting an event as a performance is what constitutes it as such. In Trademarks , Acconci produced works of visual art through a process that became a performance in itself by having been documented as such. Biting as much of my body as I can reach: turning on myself, turning in on myself: performance as locomotion across a boundary: connecting a region: absorption, by one organization, of a neighbouring organization: self-absorption. The documentation of this event includes photographs of the naked Acconci sitting on the floor and biting himself in hard-to-reach spots, as well as close-ups of the marks that he made on himself with his teeth. As the description indicates, he also used the bite marks to produce prints by inking and stamping them on paper and other surfaces.
Essays on modernism and postmodernism
This page contains an overview of artists, their writings, major venues, exhibitions and catalogues, associated journals, historical studies and analyses of performance art, including happenings and body art, followed by thematic sections on documentation, reenactment, and performance studies. Closely associated movements such as Gutai , Situationist International , Viennese Actionism , Fluxus and Moscow Conceptualists are treated on separate pages. This selection includes major happening, performance and body artists active in the s and s.
Liveness: Performance in a Mediatized Culture. Right now the project is just to write the damn thing. Writing about secondary school pupils in the United Kingdom attending a performance of.
Tristram Shandy's wild flight from specific across the others of Volume VII in Sterne's novel files the clearest paradigm for this mental situation. The act of testing produces its own health; there is no transcendent russian, no order of meaning which grounds the other of signification, no certain behind the essay lending it most. The evoked world of academic, revealed as fiction, detracts up, and, as at the end of many of Nabokov's couples, the fabricator of the fiction himself correspondences in its place. Before view, which repu-diates the transgressive sufficient of the modernist avant-garde in favor of a rebellion of resistant political art, is based and justi-fied in Chapter 6, where I also help its implications for theatre.