File Name: exploring unconscious bias in disparities research and medical education .zip
- The Implicit Association Test in health professions education: A meta-narrative review
- Five strategies to combat unconscious bias
- Addressing Racism in Medical Education
The Implicit Association Test in health professions education: A meta-narrative review
Jillian A. These gaps are caused by various social and economic factors. Many of those are difficult to change. But one key factor, known as "implicit bias," can be improved through education and awareness. In healthcare, implicit bias can have an impact on medical decision making, communication, adherence to medical advice and provider-patient interactions.
Objective: Mounting evidence reveals that health care disparities stem from a combined effect of structural bias within our health system and the unconscious bias of well-intentioned health care professionals. The authors designed and evaluated a novel educational intervention to introduce the concept of unconscious bias to front-line providers. Methods: The authors designed and implemented an educational curricula for providers from three different programs at a single large, urban, tertiary-care academic institution. The intervention consisted of participants taking the implicit attitudes test IAT , which was followed by a facilitated discussion. The discussion was audio recorded, transcribed, and coded for emerging themes.
Five strategies to combat unconscious bias
For implicit preferences, a 7-point relative preference measure derived from Implicit Association Test IAT D scores from students was used, with no preference set in the center. Explicit preferences reflect participants' direct response to a similar 7-point relative preference scale. Mean pain score for white patients was 8. The P values, derived by the t test, compare black with white patients. The mean pain score, a scale of 1 to 10, was 8. The P values, derived by the t test, compare upper-class with lower-class patients.
Background and Objectives: Education of health care clinicians on racial and ethnic disparities has primarily focused on emphasizing statistics and cultural competency, with minimal attention to racism. Learning about racism and unconscious processes provides skills that reduce bias when interacting with minority patients. This paper describes the responses to a relationship-based workshop and toolkit highlighting issues that medical educators should address when teaching about racism in the context of pernicious health disparities. Methods: A multiracial, interdisciplinary team identified essential elements of teaching about racism. Discussion: Results suggest that this workshop changed knowledge and attitudes about racism and health inequities.
This research documents a recent approach to teaching implicit bias. Medical students matriculating during and participated in a determinants of health course including instruction about implicit bias. Each submitted a reflective essay discussing implicit bias, the experience of taking the Implicit Association Test IAT , and other course content. Using grounded theory methodology, student essays that discussed reactions to the IAT were analyzed for content themes based on specific statements mapping to each theme. Twenty-five percent of essays underwent a second review to calculate agreement between raters regarding identification of statements mapping to themes. Theme comments related to: a experience taking the IAT, b bias in medicine, and c prescriptive comments.
Addressing Racism in Medical Education
Educational strategies used to elicit awareness of implicit biases commonly include the Implicit Association Test IAT. Although the topic of implicit bias is gaining increased attention, emerging critique of the IAT suggests the need to subject its use to greater theoretical and empirical scrutiny. Four databases were searched using key terms yielding titles. Distinct, yet complementary, meta-narratives were found in the literature.
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