Arming Students And Teachers Is Ineffective Journal Pdf

arming students and teachers is ineffective journal pdf

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Gun Control

Following the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in , Everytown began tracking all cases of gunfire on school grounds. The aim of this project was to build a detailed national database that included all scenarios involving gunfire at schools.

To this end, Everytown created a definition that was purposely broad, including incidents defined as follows:. To gather this material, Everytown relied on news reports by reputable media sources. Where necessary, inquiries were made to law enforcement and school officials. All incidents used in the final analyses—the data points underlying this report—were then confirmed by an independent research firm.

In addition, where appropriate, Everytown used publicly available databases and studies from the Naval Postgraduate School and the New York City Police Department to supplement original analyses and findings. From to , Everytown identified incidents of gunfire on school grounds. These incidents were excluded from analyses to focus on gunfire on K—12 school grounds. At least of the victims were students. This represents a small proportion of the more than 3, children and teens ages 0 to 19 shot and killed, and 15, shot and wounded, annually.

Data from Children and teenagers aged , number of deaths by known intent homicide, suicide, unintentional deaths. Age 0 to 1 calculated separately by the CDC because the leading causes of death for newborns and infants are specific to the age group. They represent less than 1 percent of overall school gun violence incidents. However, these incidents account for a disproportionate share of the overall deaths and people wounded from school gun violence.

Mass shootings also are imposing an unknown amount of trauma on a generation of students and communities. It is unfathomable that our leaders have not taken the steps necessary to intervene and help those with patterns of violent behavior and to block their easy access to guns.

The analysis also demonstrates that other incidents of gun violence are occurring in our schools with distressing frequency. These include gun homicides and non-fatal gun assaults, unintentional discharges resulting in gunshot wounds or death, and, to a slightly lesser extent, self-harm and suicide deaths using a firearm.

All of these incidents of gun violence, regardless of their intent or victim count, compromise the safety of our schools—safety that directly impacts learning outcomes and the emotional and social development of our students.

Cornell and Matthew J. A growing body of research shows that the lingering trauma from exposure to gun violence affects everything from the ability to maintain attention 7 Patrick T. Sharkey et al. To address all incidents of gun violence at schools and their detrimental effects, a broader platform of solutions is required.

Gun Homicides, Non-Fatal Assaults, and Mass Shootings The majority of incidents of gun violence in elementary, middle, and high schools—55 percent—are homicides, non-fatal assaults, and mass shootings. Everytown identified only three mass shootings—incidents where a shooter killed four or more people—in an elementary, middle, or high school between and Far more common were incidents involving specific individuals, arguments that escalated, acts of domestic violence, parking lot altercations, and robberies where the school was an unfortunate backdrop.

While mass shootings in schools are rare, 11 This aligns with research from other organizations that have developed comparable databases of incidents in schools. According to the CHDS database, 10 mass shootings that resulted in the deaths of four or more people not including the shooter occurred on school grounds.

The CHDS database also includes more than 1, other incidents of school gun violence that occurred over the same time period. Center for Homeland Defense and Security. K—12 School Shooting Database. And the statistics do not begin to capture the collective impact these shootings have on the schools in which they occur, their communities, and all students and parents.

Over the last seven years, there were homicides and non-fatal assaults with a firearm, including three mass shootings, that took place on the grounds of elementary, middle, and high schools. These incidents resulted in at least victims: 88 deaths and shot and wounded. Thirty-five percent of those deaths and 15 percent of those shot and wounded occurred during mass shootings.

At least of the victims of gun homicides and non-fatal assaults were students at the time, and 37 percent of those students were shot during mass shootings. Homicide is the second leading cause of death among youths ages 5 to 18, and research from the School-Associated Violent Death Surveillance System found that less than 2 percent of these homicides occur on school grounds, on the way to or from school, or at or on the way to or from a school-sponsored event.

Unintentional Shootings Approximately 21 percent of gunfire incidents that occurred on the grounds of elementary, middle, and high schools were unintentional, including those resulting in gunshot wounds or death and incidents in which no one was shot.

These 64 incidents resulted in at least one death and 39 people wounded. At least 25 of those victims were students at the time. Suicide Deaths and Attempts Ten percent of elementary, middle, and high school gunfire incidents involved suicide deaths and attempts where the shooter had no intention of harming other people.

These 31 incidents resulted in 27 deaths and four people wounded. Legal Interventions and Uncategorized Incidents The remaining incidents of gunfire on the grounds of elementary, middle, and high schools—14 percent—were legal interventions or other incidents in which the intention of the shooter falls outside of the categories listed here.

Incidents involving legal intervention are those in which the shooter or potential shooter was shot or shot at by a law enforcement officer. Uncategorized incidents include, but are not limited to, those in which a firearm was discharged into the air, those in which a gun was discharged but harm was caused to others through other means, and those in which a gun was discharged with intent to damage buildings or other property.

These 43 incidents resulted in 11 deaths and six people wounded. Understanding incidents of gun violence in schools is integral to effectively creating a comprehensive plan to address their threat and effects. Everytown for Gun Safety. Overall, 58 percent were associated with the school—they were either current or former students, staff, faculty, or school resource officers.

Of the shooters involved in gun homicides and non-fatal assaults, 39 percent were current or former students. Of the three shooters involved in mass shooting incidents, all percent were current or former students.

Of the 62 shooters involved in unintentional discharges, 55 percent were current or former students. Finally, of the 30 shooters involved in self-harm injuries and suicide deaths, 90 percent were current or former students.

Everytown limited analysis to incidents that took place in K schools and defined school-aged as under the age of This data suggests that school-based interventions, like threat assessment programs, comprehensive counseling, and student support programs, can be effective tools for addressing school gun violence.

And school safety drills with students may be ineffective because the preparedness protocols and procedures are being shared with the very individuals most likely to perpetrate a school shooting. Peterson J. The Conversation. Evidence suggests that most school shooters obtain their guns from family, relatives, or friends rather than purchasing them legally or illegally.

Everytown was able to identify the gun source in 45 percent of the incidents that involved shooters under 18 years old a total of shooters. Everytown was able to identify the age of of the primary shooters. Of the remaining shooters, either the shooter was not identified in the media or police reports, or demographic information was unavailable.

Most of these shooters— 74 percent—obtained the gun s from their home or the homes of relatives or friends. This finding is consistent with other studies showing that 73 to 80 percent of school shooters under age 18 acquired the gun s they used from their home or the homes of relatives or friends. The study analyzed 41 incidents of targeted school violence from through finding that of the 25 incidents that involved firearms, 76 percent of shooters acquired the gun s used in the incidents from their home or that of a relative.

This report also included a summary of a previous analysis of 37 incidents of targeted school violence from through June finding that of the 36 incidents that involved firearms, 73 percent of shooters acquired the gun s used in the incidents from their home or that of a relative.

Alathari, L. National Threat Assessment Center. Washington Post. The US Secret Service with partners have undertaken two significant studies of targeted school violence that encompassed incidents from through June in one study and incidents from through in another.

In both periods, approximately three-quarters of school shooters acquired the firearm from the home of a parent or close relative 73 percent in the first study and 76 percent in the second study. This data suggests that secure storage laws and raising awareness about secure storage responsibilities can be effective tools in addressing the source of guns used in school gun violence.

There Are Often Warning Signs Particularly with school violence incidents, there are often warning signs. These warning signs, if appropriately identified, can offer an opportunity for intervention. The Secret Service and the US Department of Education studied all targeted school violence incidents during two different time periods and found overwhelming evidence about warning signs.

From through June , in 93 percent of cases there were behavioral warning signs that caused others to be concerned. A follow-up study on incidents from through found that percent of the perpetrators showed concerning behaviors, and 77 percent of the time at least one person, most often a peer, knew about their plan. In addition, improvements to school climate that foster trust between students and adults are needed to ensure that students are willing to report warning signs. Gun Violence in American Schools Has a Disproportionate Impact on Students of Color 29 Everytown also analyzed racial disparities in gunfire on college and university campuses and found similar results.

Not only are students of color, especially Black students, disproportionately impacted by gun violence on campus, but Historically Black Colleges and Universities HBCUs experience a particularly high number of incidents compared to other higher education institutions: 31 of the more than HBCUs nationwide experienced incidents of gunfire on school grounds between and and some campuses experienced multiple incidents. While perpetrators of mass shootings in schools have tended to be white, and the popular narrative around school shootings has focused on predominantly white schools, the larger context of gunfire on school grounds presents a very different picture.

Among the shooting incidents at K schools where the racial demographic information of the student body was known, 64 percent occurred in majority-minority schools. The burden of gun violence has a particularly outsized impact on Black students.

Of those, 25 were identified as Black, 57 as white, 23 as Hispanic or Latino, 3 as Asian-Pacific Islander, and 4 as other.

The analysis includes in the count of these victims both people shot and wounded and deaths resulting from homicides, non-fatal assaults, unintentional shootings, and suicides and incidents of self-harm where no one else was hurt. This suggests that creating safe and equitable schools and supporting community-oriented intervention programs in communities with high rates of gun violence can help address these broader trends.

In order to effectively address violence in our schools, it must first be acknowledged that it is, in fact, a gun violence problem. Few have effectively and thoroughly addressed the issue common in all school shootings: easy access to guns by those at risk of committing harm. Everytown, AFT, and NEA firmly believe that any effective school safety plan must involve a proactive effort to enact meaningful gun violence prevention policies that enable intervention before a prospective shooter can get his or her hands on a gun.

These gun violence prevention solutions work hand in hand with school-based intervention policies to create safe climates, provide sufficient counseling and mental health services, and intervene before a student becomes a shooter. As with most active shooter incidents in schools, there were warning signs prior to the shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School. However, the shooter legally bought the gun he used. He had never been convicted of a crime, and his mental health history did not legally prohibit him from buying or having guns.

These laws create a legal process by which law enforcement, family members, and, in some states, educators can petition a court to prevent a person from having access to firearms when there is evidence that they are at serious risk of harming themselves or others.

Extreme Risk laws are a critical intervention tool that can be used to prevent violent situations. When family, educators, or law enforcement are made aware that a student or another person is a risk to themselves or others, and that the person has access to guns, they can use a court process and ask a judge for a civil restraining order.

These extreme risk protection orders, sometimes known as red flag orders or gun violence restraining orders, can be issued only after a specific legal determination is made that a person poses a serious threat to themselves or others.

Keeping Our Schools Safe

When mass shootings are reported, few create as much anguish as attacks that kill school children. In contrast to vociferous but ineffective cries for new laws, a few proactive school administrators are addressing causes leading a student to attack fellow students, coupled with sensible defensive precautions to decisively stop threats against students. For a number of years, I have followed the school safety efforts of a Network member who is a small town Texas school superintendent. David R. Walker has instituted an armed school defense program that is effective and has the support of the school board, the community, the school staff and the students. The result is safe schools that focus on turning out self-sufficient, well-prepared graduates without taking on the atmosphere of an armed fortress. I had gotten bits and pieces of the Christoval story from Dr.

Schools are generally one of the safest locations for youth. Concerns for student well-being have prompted schools to respond swiftly to the perceived threat of school violence. For example, following the deadly elementary school shooting in Newtown, Conn. Some schools have implemented punitive policies that suspend and exclude students for violent or disruptive behavior; others have responded by concentrating on youth development and rewarding prosocial behavior. Many schools have installed metal detectors and hired security guards or school resource officers.

Following the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in , Everytown began tracking all cases of gunfire on school grounds. The aim of this project was to build a detailed national database that included all scenarios involving gunfire at schools. To this end, Everytown created a definition that was purposely broad, including incidents defined as follows:. To gather this material, Everytown relied on news reports by reputable media sources. Where necessary, inquiries were made to law enforcement and school officials.


The High School Journal, Volume , Number 3, Spring , pp. This editorial explores the complex terrain of what arming teachers and students by the sheer knowledge that a gun is in the classroom. To the extent that schools adopt ineffective firearm violence prevention measures they are.


Arming Teachers Introduces New Risks Into Schools

Dennis Prager is a syndicated conservative radio host and a columnist for the Daily Signal. In the following viewpoint, Prager argues that the government should provide public school teachers with firearms and training to reduce the number of casualties in a mass shooting. Citing examples over the past century, the author contends that people who advocate for gun control and promote nonviolence have allowed terrorism and human rights abuses to flourish. Prager criticizes gun control advocates and their associates for squandering their energies on issues less important to society than national security.

They oppose arming teachers. Keeping our kids safe at school: a plan to stop mass shootings and end gun violence in American schools. February The National Association of School Resource Officers strongly opposes proposals to arm teachers due to the risk it would pose to law enforcement, students and the school community, as well as the risks to the armed teachers themselves. NASRO opposes arming teachers.

The psychology of guns: risk, fear, and motivated reasoning

An armed police officer patrols the hallways of a high school in Springfield, Virginia, January

Smart Investments for Safer Schools

Теперь он молил Бога, чтобы священник не торопился, ведь как только служба закончится, он будет вынужден встать, хотя бы для того чтобы пропустить соседей по скамье. А в своем пиджаке он обречен. Беккер понимал, что в данный момент ничего не может предпринять. Ему оставалось только стоять на коленях на холодном каменном полу огромного собора. Старик утратил к нему всякий интерес, прихожане встали и запели гимн.

Она просияла и прижала записку к груди. Это был Дэвид, кто же. Без воска… Этот шифр она еще не разгадала. Что-то шевельнулось в углу.


Parents frantically convened at the local firehouse where students Newark School Committee Discusses Arming Teachers To Improve Security, kirstenostherr.org (​Feb. 26, , press-release/​NASP_Statement_on_Increasing_Armed_kirstenostherr.org [hereinafter NASP]. on ineffective, “knee-jerk” measures


Programs and Practices to Prevent School Violence and Improve School Safety

Она быстро проверила отчет программы в поисках команды, которая могла отозвать Следопыта, но ничего не обнаружила. Складывалось впечатление, что он отключился сам по. Сьюзан знала, что такое могло произойти только по одной причине - если бы в Следопыте завелся вирус. Вирусы были самой большой неприятностью, с которой сталкивались в своей работе программисты.

Gun Control

Беккер задумался: Я бы хотел, чтобы ты как следует вымыл голову, научился говорить по-человечески и нашел себе работу. Но решил, что хочет от этого парня слишком многого. - Мне нужна кое-какая информация, - сказал .

 Чепуха.

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Is Arming Teachers Our Nation's Best Response to Gun Violence? The Perspective of Public Health Students. July ; American Journal of Public Health.

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