File Name: hormonal regulation of blood glucose level and diabetes mellitus .zip
- Regulation of blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus using palatable diet composition
- Blood Glucose Regulation
- Molecular Basis of Blood Glucose Regulation
Regulation of blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus using palatable diet composition
Jump to content. Regulation of glucose in the body is done autonomically and constantly throughout each minute of the day. Too little glucose, called hypoglycemia , starves cells, and too much glucose hyperglycemia creates a sticky, paralyzing effect on cells. A delicate balance between hormones of the pancreas, intestines, brain, and even adrenals is required to maintain normal BG levels. To appreciate the pathology of diabetes, it is important to understand how the body normally uses food for energy.
The levels of glucose in the blood are regulated by the hormones insulin and glucagon from the pancreas, and T3 and T4 from the thyroid. Blood glucose levels vary widely over the course of a day as periods of food consumption alternate with periods of fasting. Insulin and glucagon are the two hormones primarily responsible for maintaining homeostasis of blood glucose levels. Additional regulation is mediated by the thyroid hormones. Cells of the body require nutrients in order to function. These nutrients are obtained through feeding. In order to manage nutrient intake, storing excess intake, and utilizing reserves when necessary, the body uses hormones to moderate energy stores.
Blood glucose regulation involves maintaining blood glucose levels at constant levels in the face of dynamic glucose intake and energy use by the body. Glucose, shown in figure 1 is key in the energy intake of humans. In order to maintain this range there are two main hormones that control blood glucose levels: insulin and glucagon. Insulin is released when there are high amounts of glucose in the blood stream. Glucagon is released when there are low levels of glucose in the blood stream. There are other hormones that effect glucose regulation and are mainly controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. Blood glucose regulation is very important to the maintenance of the human body.
Blood Glucose Regulation
Diabetes mellitus results from the failure of the endocrine system to control the blood glucose levels within the normal limits. It can be understood as a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism and characterized primarily by hyperglycemia and glycosuria with second anomalies of the metabolism of protein and fat. It is not only the leading cause of blindness, renal failure and non-traumatic amputations in adults but also a major cardiovascular risk factor in developing countries. So, it is of great interest to propose a palatable composition of quantitative diet for the human beings suffering from Diabetes Mellitus to regulate the blood glucose and insulin level. In the present study, the palatable composition is calculated by two mathematical models and given in the form of calories for protein P , fat F and carbohydrate C. For the calculations, the mixed population has been distinguished into three categories namely men, women and juvenile having various body frames i. With the substitution of this composition in the solutions, the near- normal level of blood glucose and insulin is achieved.
PDF | A dynamical-systems model of plasma glucose concentration, and its G(t) and I(t) for a type 2 diabetic, given food (G total = ) but no insulin (I total.
Molecular Basis of Blood Glucose Regulation
In order to ensure normal body function, the human body is dependent on a tight control of its blood glucose levels. This is accomplished by a highly sophisticated network of various hormones and neuropeptides released mainly from the brain, pancreas, liver, intestine as well as adipose and muscle tissue. Within this network, the pancreas represents a key player by secreting the blood sugar-lowering hormone insulin and its opponent glucagon. However, disturbances in the interplay of the hormones and peptides involved may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM whose prevalence, comorbidities and medical costs take on a dramatic scale. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to uncover and understand the mechanisms underlying the various interactions to improve existing anti-diabetic therapies and drugs on the one hand and to develop new therapeutic approaches on the other.
Blood glucose level is regulated by multiple pancreatic hormones, which regulate it by different pathways in normal and abnormal conditions by expressing or suppressing multiple genes or molecular or cellular targets. Multiple synthetic drugs and therapies are used to cure glucose regulatory problems, while many of them are used to cure other health issues, which arise due to disturbance in blood glucose regulations. Blood Glucose Levels.
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