File Name: game theory and public policy .zip
- GAME THEORY AND MODELLING OF COORDINATING INTERACTIONS IN PUBLIC POLICY
- Rational choice theory
- The Basics of Game Theory
Most discussion of policy analysis and economics centers around two things: inequality and the distribution of efficient market outcomes, and market failures or instances where markets fail to operate efficiently. In other words we assume that the consumption choices do not directly affect the payoffs of others. They may indirectly affect them, as in the case of externalities, and agents may fail to account for these effects when they make their decisions but we generally assume that these decisions are not strategic, they are simply made in isolation.
Not registered? Sign up. More Contact us Publish with us Subscribe Accessibility.
GAME THEORY AND MODELLING OF COORDINATING INTERACTIONS IN PUBLIC POLICY
Actively scan device characteristics for identification. Use precise geolocation data. Select personalised content. Create a personalised content profile. Measure ad performance. Select basic ads. Create a personalised ads profile.
Select personalised ads. Apply market research to generate audience insights. Measure content performance. Develop and improve products. List of Partners vendors. Game theory is the process of modeling the strategic interaction between two or more players in a situation containing set rules and outcomes. While used in a number of disciplines, game theory is most notably used as a tool within the study of economics.
The economic application of game theory can be a valuable tool to aide in the fundamental analysis of industries, sectors and any strategic interaction between two or more firms. Here, we'll take an introductory look at game theory and the terms involved, and introduce you to a simple method of solving games, called backwards induction.
Any time we have a situation with two or more players that involves known payouts or quantifiable consequences, we can use game theory to help determine the most likely outcomes. Let's start out by defining a few terms commonly used in the study of game theory:. As with any concept in economics, there is the assumption of rationality. There is also an assumption of maximization. It is assumed that players within the game are rational and will strive to maximize their payoffs in the game.
This will exclude any "what if" questions that may arise. The number of players in a game can theoretically be infinite, but most games will be put into the context of two players. One of the simplest games is a sequential game involving two players.
Below is a simple sequential game between two players. The numbers in the parentheses at the bottom of the tree are the payoffs at each respective point. The game is also sequential, so Player 1 makes the first decision left or right and Player 2 makes its decision after Player 1 up or down. Backward induction, like all game theory, uses the assumptions of rationality and maximization, meaning that Player 2 will maximize his payoff in any given situation. At either information set, we have two choices, four in all.
By eliminating the choices that Player 2 will not choose, we can narrow down our tree. In this way, we will bold the lines that maximize the player's payoff at the given information set. After this reduction, Player 1 can maximize its payoffs now that Player 2's choices are made known. The result is an equilibrium found by backward induction of Player 1 choosing "right" and Player 2 choosing "up.
For example, one could easily set up a game similar to the one above using companies as the players. This game could include product release scenarios. If Company 1 wanted to release a product, what might Company 2 do in response? Will Company 2 release a similar competing product? By forecasting sales of this new product in different scenarios, we can set up a game to predict how events might unfold.
Below is an example of how one might model such a game. By using simple methods of game theory, we can solve for what would be a confusing array of outcomes in a real-world situation.
Using game theory as a tool for financial analysis can be very helpful in sorting out potentially messy real-world situations, from mergers to product releases. Behavioral Economics. Business Essentials. Investing Essentials.
Risk Management. Your Privacy Rights. To change or withdraw your consent choices for Investopedia. At any time, you can update your settings through the "EU Privacy" link at the bottom of any page. These choices will be signaled globally to our partners and will not affect browsing data. We and our partners process data to: Actively scan device characteristics for identification. I Accept Show Purposes. Your Money.
Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Compare Accounts. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. Related Articles. Investing Essentials 7 Controversial Investing Theories. Partner Links. Related Terms Backward Induction In game theory, backward induction is the process of deducing backward from the end of a problem or scenario to infer a sequence of optimal actions. How Game Theory Works Game theory is a framework for modeling scenarios in which conflicts of interest exist among the players.
Traveler's Dilemma Definition The traveler's dilemma demonstrates the paradox of rationality—that making decisions illogically often produces a better payoff in game theory. A zero-sum game may have as few as two players, or millions of participants. Radner Equilibrium Definition The Radner Equilibrium is an extension of general equilibrium theory that includes uncertainty and incomplete information.
Investopedia is part of the Dotdash publishing family.
Rational choice theory
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Currently, the policy networks is one of the most promising approaches to studying of public policy, however, there are drawbacks. For this reason, this study proposes to combine policy networks with coalitional game theory to create an interdisciplinary model. Save to Library.
Parkash Chander argues that we can make progress on the climate-change impasse through incorporating the insights of game theory. Chander offers economic and game-theoretic interpretations of both the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement and discusses the policy recommendations his framework generates. Robert N. Stavins, Harvard University: Climate change is an extraordinarily challenging problem, partly because of its global commons nature. For this reason, game theory can bring valuable insights to considerations of alternative public policies, as well as to international negotiations among the countries of the world. In Game Theory and Climate Change , Parkash Chander adds in significant ways to the relevant scholarly literature at the interface of climate change, economics, and game theory.
The Basics of Game Theory
Rational choice theory , also called rational action theory or choice theory , school of thought based on the assumption that individuals choose a course of action that is most in line with their personal preferences. Rational choice theory is used to model human decision making , especially in the context of microeconomics , where it helps economists better understand the behaviour of a society in terms of individual actions as explained through rationality , in which choices are consistent because they are made according to personal preference. Rational choice theory increasingly is applied to other areas as well, including evolutionary theory, political science , and warfare. In rational choice theory, agents are described by their unchanging sets of preferences over all conceivable global outcomes. Agents are said to be rational if their preferences are complete—that is, if they reflect a relationship of superiority, inferiority, or indifference among all pairs of choices—and are logically ordered—that is, they do not exhibit any cyclic inconsistencies.
Collective intelligence Collective action Self-organized criticality Herd mentality Phase transition Agent-based modelling Synchronization Ant colony optimization Particle swarm optimization Swarm behaviour. Evolutionary computation Genetic algorithms Genetic programming Artificial life Machine learning Evolutionary developmental biology Artificial intelligence Evolutionary robotics. Reaction—diffusion systems Partial differential equations Dissipative structures Percolation Cellular automata Spatial ecology Self-replication.
Где деньги. Беккер достал из кармана пять ассигнаций по десять тысяч песет и протянул мотоциклисту. Итальянец посмотрел на деньги, потом на свою спутницу. Девушка схватила деньги и сунула их в вырез блузки. - Grazie! - просиял итальянец. Он швырнул Беккеру ключи от веспы, затем взял свою девушку за руку, и они, смеясь, побежали к зданию клуба. - Aspetta! - закричал Беккер.
Что за чепуха. И ради этого он вызвал меня в субботу. - Как сказать… - Она заколебалась. - Несколько месяцев назад к нам попал перехват КОМИНТ, на расшифровку ушло около часа, но там мы столкнулись с удивительно длинным шифром - что-то около десяти тысяч бит. - Около часа, говоришь? - хмуро спросил. - А что ты скажешь о проверках пределов памяти, которые мы выполняли.
Сирены по-прежнему выли. Пять секунд. Шесть секунд.
Выходила только абракадабра. Похоже, не один Танкадо умел создавать абсолютно стойкие шифры. Ее мысли прервал шипящий звук открываемой пневматической двери. В Третий узел заглянул Стратмор.
ANON. ORG Ее внимание сразу же привлекли буквы ARA - сокращенное название Анонимной рассылки Америки, хорошо известного анонимного сервера. Такие серверы весьма популярны среди пользователей Интернета, желающих скрыть свои личные данные.
Его зовут Дэвид. - Какая разница?. - Тебе больше нечем заняться? - Сьюзан метнула на него недовольный взгляд. - Хочешь от меня избавиться? - надулся Хейл. - Если честно - да, - Не надо так, Сью, Ты меня оскорбляешь.
Ради всего святого, зачем вы это сделали. Чтобы скрыть свою маленькую тайну.