File Name: encyclopedia of race and racism .zip
- Nazi Racism: In Depth
- Encyclopedia of Race and Racism
- Encyclopedia of Race and Racism - Reference Online Resources
- Critical race theory
Examines theories of race and racism in the modern era, with entries on the historic origins of ideas of race, and their social and scientific consequences. Skip to main content. Google Tag Manager.
Nazi Racism: In Depth
Racism is the belief that groups of humans possess different behavioral traits corresponding to physical appearance and can be divided based on the superiority of one race over another. These views can take the form of social actions , practices or beliefs, or political systems in which different races are ranked as inherently superior or inferior to each other, based on presumed shared inheritable traits, abilities, or qualities. In terms of political systems e. While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science , the two terms have a long history of equivalence in popular usage and older social science literature. Therefore, racism and racial discrimination are often used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination , there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination. The UN Convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false , morally condemnable, socially unjust and dangerous.
His philosophical writings in the s and early s led to the development of the critical race theory. Critical race theory CRT is a movement that challenges the ability of conventional legal strategies to deliver social and economic justice and specifically calls for legal approaches that take into consideration race as a nexus of American life. The movement champions many of the same concerns as the civil rights movement but places those concerns within a broader economic and historical context. It often elevates the equality principles of the Fourteenth Amendment above the liberty principles of the First Amendment. CRT has its underpinnings in the philosophical writings of Derrick Bell in the s and early s. It was born out of the realization by legal scholars, lawyers, and activists that many of the advances of the civil rights era had stopped and in some circumstances were being reversed. Early on, legal scholars, including Bell, Alan Freemen, and Richard Delgado, began developing alternative legal theories and frameworks for combating racial inequality.
How is race defined and perceived in America today, and how do these definitions and perceptions compare to attitudes years ago… or years ago? This four-volume set is the definitive source for every topic related to race in the United States. In the 21st century, it is easy for some students and readers to believe that racism is a thing of the past; in reality, old wounds have yet to heal, and new forms of racism are taking shape. Racism has played a role in American society since the founding of the nation, in spite of the words "all men are created equal" within the Declaration of Independence. This set is the largest and most complete of its kind, covering every facet of race relations in the United States while providing information in a user-friendly format that allows easy cross-referencing of related topics for efficient research and learning. The work serves as an accessible tool for high school researchers, provides important material for undergraduate students enrolled in a variety of humanities and social sciences courses, and is an outstanding ready reference for race scholars. The entries provide readers with comprehensive content supplemented by historical backgrounds, relevant examples from primary documents, and first-hand accounts.
Encyclopedia of Race and Racism
Critical race theory CRT is an academic movement made up of civil-rights scholars and activists in the United States who seek to critically examine the law as it intersects with issues of race , and to challenge mainstream liberal approaches to racial justice. CRT originated in the mids in the writings of several American legal scholars including Derrick Bell. Roy L. Brooks defines CRT in as: . A collection of critical stances against the existing legal order from a race-based point of view.
Encyclopedia of Race and Racism - Reference Online Resources
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The doctrine of racism asserts that blood is the marker of national-ethnic identity. It assumes that inherited characteristics biologically determine human behavior. Racists believe that innate, inherited characteristics biologically determine human behavior. In the early twentieth-century, such views on race were widely accepted in many parts of the world.
Encyclopedia of Race and Racism. Macmillan Social Science Library. In the introduction to Encyclopedia of Race and Racism, editor John Moore explains the study of racism as having two perspectives: one from science and the other from the humanities. The scientific focuses on the racist theory debate among biologists with some proposing that "human groups, regional populations, [and] 'races' are significantly different from one another in their mental, artistic, and physical abilities" xii while others test the assertions and refute them. According to Moore, a substantial portion of the Encyclopedia is "devoted to examinations of particular propositions and how they have been criticized in the last three hundred years" Ibid.
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education.
Critical race theory
Conservative administrations and an American public that seemed increasingly weary of hearing about race required new strategies and theories to deal with subtle, institutional, or color-blind forms of racism and a judiciary that no longer seemed eager to champion civil rights. Derrick Bell, an African-American professor of law at Harvard Law School later at New York University and Alan Freeman, a white scholar teaching at SUNY-Buffalo Law School, laid the foundations of the movement that came to be called critical race theory and that would go on to transform our understanding of the relationship among race, racism, and official power. For his part, Bell contributed groundbreaking analyses of conflict of interest in civil rights litigation and of the role of white elite self-interest in explaining the twists and turns of blacks' racial fortunes. In an impressive article in Yale Law Journal, Bell pointed out that lawyers for elite civil rights organizations like the NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People , where he himself worked before entering law teaching, often were eager to pursue one agenda — law reform and innovation — while the client community wanted something else — say, better schools. The NAACP Legal Defense Fund, for example, relentlessly and courageously pursued school desegregation, while black parents often wanted something different — better funding for black schools. If the first essay produced consternation and soul-searching among his colleagues in the civil rights movement, a second piece, on the role of interest convergence in determining the course of racial reform and retrenchment, raised eyebrows even higher.
Панк брезгливо ее пожал. - Проваливал бы ты, пидор. Беккер убрал руку. Парень хмыкнул. - Я тебе помогу, если заплатишь.
Сьюзан Флетчер оказалась в полной темноте. Сьюзан Флетчер нетерпеливо мерила шагами туалетную комнату шифровалки и медленно считала от одного до пятидесяти. Голова у нее раскалывалась. Еще немного, - повторяла она мысленно. - Северная Дакота - это Хейл. Интересно, какие он строит планы.
В обычных условиях такое действие считалось бы недопустимым. Но в сложившейся ситуации никакой опасности в загрузке в ТРАНСТЕКСТ этой программы не было, потому что коммандер точно знал, что это за файл и откуда он появился. - Несмотря на все мое уважение к вам, сэр, - продолжал настаивать Чатрукьян, - мне никогда еще не доводилось слышать о диагностике, в которой использовалась бы мутация… - Коммандер, - перебила его Сьюзан, которая не могла больше ждать. - Мне действительно нужно… На этот раз ее слова прервал резкий звонок мобильного телефона Стратмора.
Сколько угодно, - улыбнулась женщина. - Самолет улетел почти пустой. Но завтра в восемь утра тоже есть… - Мне нужно узнать, улетела ли этим рейсом моя подруга. Она собиралась купить билет прямо перед вылетом.
Я ничего не нашел на Северную Дакоту, поэтому изменил направление поиска. В записи, которую я обнаружил, фигурирует другое имя - N DAKOTA. Сьюзан покачала головой.