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Philosophy of education , philosophical reflection on the nature, aims, and problems of education. The philosophy of education is Janus -faced, looking both inward to the parent discipline of philosophy and outward to educational practice.
- Philosophical Ideological Theoretical Perspectives Education by Gerald Gutek
- Philosophy of Education
- Philosophical, Ideological, and Theoretical Perspectives on Education, 2nd Edition
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Philosophical Ideological Theoretical Perspectives Education by Gerald Gutek
Burbules Nathan Raybeck. The word education is used sometimes to signify the activity, process, or enterprise of educating or being educated and sometimes to signify the discipline or field of study taught in schools of education that concerns itself with this activity, process, or enterprise. As an activity or process, education may be formal or informal, private or public, individual or social, but it always consists in cultivating dispositions abilities, skills, knowledges, beliefs, attitudes, values, and character traits by certain methods. As a discipline, education studies or reflects on the activity or enterprise by asking questions about its aims, methods, effects, forms, history, costs, value, and relations to society. The philosophy of education may be either the philosophy of the process of education or the philosophy of the discipline of education. That is, it may be part of the discipline in the sense of being concerned with the aims, forms, methods, or results of the process of educating or being educated; or it may be metadisciplinary in the sense of being concerned with the concepts, aims, and methods of the discipline. However, even in the latter case it may be thought of as part of the discipline, just as metaphilosophy is thought of as a part of philosophy, although the philosophy of science is not regarded as a part of science.
The term was coined by Antoine Destutt de Tracy , a French Enlightenment aristocrat and philosopher , who conceived it in as the "science of ideas" to develop a rational system of ideas to oppose the irrational impulses of the mob. In political science , the term is used in a descriptive sense to refer to political belief systems. The term ideology, and the system of ideas associated with it, was coined in by Antoine Destutt de Tracy while in prison pending trial during the Reign of Terror , where he read the works of Locke and Condillac. He conceived ideology as a liberal philosophy that would defend individual liberty , property , free markets , and constitutional limits on state power. He argues that, among these aspects, ideology is the most generic term because the 'science of ideas' also contains the study of their expression and deduction. He describes ideology as rather like teaching philosophy via the Socratic method , though without extending the vocabulary beyond what the general reader already possessed, and without the examples from observation that practical science would require. Taine identifies it not just with Destutt De Tracy, but also with his milieu , and includes Condillac as one of its precursors.
Philosophy of Education
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Philosophical, Ideological, and Theoretical Perspectives on Education, 2nd Edition
Unlike the more abstract ontology and axiology, these four perspectives focus primarily on what should be taught and how it should be taught, i. Essentialism adheres to a belief that a core set of essential skills must be taught to all students. Typically, essentialism argues for a back-to-basics approach on teaching intellectual and moral standards. Schools should prepare all students to be productive members of society. Essentialist curricula focuses on reading, writing, computing clearly and logically about objective facts about the outside real world.
Functionalists believe that education equips people to perform different functional roles in society. Conflict theorists view education as a means of widening the gap in social inequality. Feminist theorists point to evidence that sexism in education continues to prevent women from achieving a full measure of social equality. Symbolic interactionists study the dynamics of the classroom, the interactions between students and teachers, and how those affect everyday life. In this section, you will learn about each of these perspectives.
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