The Fish Immune System Organism Pathogen And Environment Pdf

the fish immune system organism pathogen and environment pdf

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The Fish Immune System: Organism, Pathogen, and Environment, Volume 15

The vertebrate immune system is comprised of numerous distinct and interdependent components. Vertebrate immune system consists of both systemic and mucosal immune compartments, but it is the mucosal immune system which protects the body from the first encounter of pathogens. According to anatomical location, the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, in teleost fish is subdivided into gut-, skin-, and gill-associated lymphoid tissue and most available studies focus on gut. The purpose of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of the immunological defences present in skin mucosa as a very important part of the fish immune system, serving as an anatomical and physiological barrier against external hazards. Interest in defence mechanism of fish arises from a need to develop health management tools to support a growing finfish aquaculture industry, while at the same time addressing questions concerning origins and evolution of immunity in vertebrates. Increased knowledge of fish mucosal immune system will facilitate the development of novel vaccination strategies in fish.

Immune system

Geovanny D. Although fish immunology has progressed in the last few years, the contribution of the normal endogenous microbiota to the overall health status has been so far underestimated. In this context, the establishment of a normal or protective microbiota constitutes a key component to maintain good health, through competitive exclusion mechanisms, and has implications for the development and maturation of the immune system. The normal microbiota influences the innate immune system, which is of vital importance for the disease resistance of fish and is divided into physical barriers, humoral and cellular components. This review covers the innate immune mechanisms of protection against pathogens, in relation with the installation and composition of the normal endogenous microbiota in fish and its role on health. Knowledge of such interaction may offer novel and useful means designing adequate therapeutic strategies for disease prevention and treatment. The health status of aquatic organisms is uniquely related to their immediate environments, which can contain very high concentrations of microorganisms.

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All metazoans possess innate immune defence system whereas parameters of the adaptive immune system make their first appearance in the gnathostomata, the jawed vertebrates. Fish are therefore the first animal phyla to possess both an innate and adaptive immune system making them very interesting as regards developmental studies of the immune system. The massive increase in aquaculture in recent decades has also put greater emphasis on studies of the fish immune system and defence against diseases commonly associated with intensive fish rearing. Some of the main components of the innate and adaptive immune system of fish are described.

New Advances and Contributions to Fish Biology. The immune system can be defined as a complex system that protects the organism against organisms or substances that might cause infection or disease. One of the most fascinating characteristics of the immune system is its capability to recognize and respond to pathogens with significant specificity. Innate and adaptive immune responses are able to recognize foreign structures and trigger different molecular and cellular mechanisms for antigen elimination.

Oxidative stress and fish immune system: phagocytosis and leukocyte respiratory burst activity. Molecular oxygen is a necessary compound for all aerobic organisms, although oxygen is a potent oxidant, which can cause oxidative stress OS. OS occurs when there is an imbalance between the production of oxidant and antioxidants components, are result of normal cell metabolism, and many of these compounds play a fundamental role in several metabolic pathways. The organism produces several reactive oxygen species ROS , but they are balanced by an antioxidant defense system that maintains the levels of these oxidizing compounds at an acceptable level.

An Overview of the Immunological Defenses in Fish Skin

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Anatomy of the Immune System. Cells and Tissues of the Immune System of Fish. Cellular Defenses. Humoral Defense. Specific Defense Mechanisms. Humoral Defenses. Natural Changes in the Immune System of Fish.

Immunotoxicology of selected current-use pesticides in juvenile salmonids. Pesticides are a class of chemicals that are deliberately released into the environment with the express intention of causing lethality to a target species. A survey completed in found that there was over , kg of total pesticides sold in the Lower Mainland region alone and over 1 million kilograms of pesticides sold province-wide. Thus it is not surprising to find that current use pesticides are being frequently detected in environmental samples and that effects on non-target species may be a concern. Immunotoxicity, a form of sublethal toxicity, considers how chemicals may impact the immune system of an organism. Fish are regularly exposed to bacterial and other pathogens in their natural aquatic environment and a healthy, functional immune system is imperative for their survival. Depression of the immune system by anthropogenic chemicals, such as pesticides, can lead to increased susceptibility to infection with pathogenic organisms and subsequent morbidity or mortality which may contribute to population level declines in fish species.

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Stress is a condition in which an animal is unable to maintain a normal physiologic state because of various factors adversely affecting its well-being. Stress is caused by placing a fish in a situation that is beyond its normal level of tolerance. Specific examples of things that can cause stress stressors are listed below. Pollution—intentional pollution: chemical treatments—accidental pollution: insect spray, spills. Increases in blood sugar are caused by a secretion of hormones from the adrenal gland.

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Like humans and other animals, fish suffer from diseases and parasites. Fish defences against disease are specific and non-specific. Non-specific defences include skin and scales, as well as the mucus layer secreted by the epidermis that traps microorganisms and inhibits their growth. If pathogens breach these defences, fish can develop inflammatory responses that increase the flow of blood to infected areas and deliver white blood cells that attempt to destroy the pathogens. Specific defences are specialised responses to particular pathogens recognised by the fish's body, that is adaptative immune responses.

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