The History And Social Influence Of The Potato Pdf

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The History and Social Influence of the Potato

XXZV 1- pages illus. SALAMAN, after 40 years of research on genetical, morphological, pathological, and related studies of the potato, and 9 years in the preparation of the material, presents the most comprehensive book that has been published on this subject. He shows by the records of the ancient Peruvian pottery that the potato was cultivated as early as the second century A. H e discusses the potato in pre-Spanish Peru, and by documentary evidence shows that Costellanos was the first white inan to find and describe the potato and not Cieza de Leon who has for years been given the credit for the discovery.

He disproves the Drake legend concerning the introduction of the potato into Ireland and presents evidence to show that Raleigh may have been at least indirectly responsible for this event. T o the potato geneticist and others interested in botanical relationships, the authors discussion of the species and the place of origin of the first introductions into Europe is of great interest.

It is indicated that the first varieties to reach the British Isles belonged to the Solanum andigenurn species and not to S. T h e characteristics of other species, early culture, preservation, and use are discussed in considerable detail. T h e conhision and errors of early botanists, such as Gerard, are presented. T h e prejudices that attended the first introductions into European countries, originated by herbalists, medical men, and others, are described with documentary evidence to prove their existence.

Many of these seem lantastic, but no more absurd than some of the notions held at present. In spite of opposition and in response to a need the potato soon after its introduction assumed a place of importance in the economic and political life first in Ireland and later in England, Wales, and Scotland. T h e chapter on Potato Varieties, Past, Present, and Future, is of especial interest to potato geneticists and pathologists.

Here the author gives the characteristics of many of the old varieties produced for the most part during the last half of the nineteenth century. They were bred by amateurs, raiser-selectionists, whose methods were empirical; but they produced a wide range of varieties, exhibiting every shade of.

Most of these varieties became infected with viruses, late blight Phytophthora infestam , or wart disease Synchytrizim endobioticurn. Early in the twentieth century potato breeding entered a new phase. Empirical methods were no longer adequate, and scientific methods were ushered in. T h e techniques and outstanding results are described in the account given of the efforts to produce varieties immune from or resistant to wart, late blight, and viruses.

This chapter should be an inspiration and a guide to geneticists, pathologists, and agronomists, regardless of the crop with which they are working. Of chief interest to students of political science, sociology, and economics are the 20 chapters that give in detail the social, political, religious, and economic conditions and changes, chiefly in the British Isles from the sixteenth to the twentieth century. I t is indicated that the potato was both a blessing and a curse to Ireland; a blessing in that it provided the peasants the most food for the least labor of any of the crops; a curse in that the employers were quick to take advantage of the situation by paying lower wages because the workers had another means of subsistence.

Then, too, the potato soon became the chief food among the peasants, and when crop failures resulted, as they did in the blight years of to , a large number of people died of starvation and many others were reduced to dire poverty. T h e author emphasizes the important part of the potato in these calamities; but the impoverishing acts, the dispossessions, the raises in rents, and other harmful measures might have brought about similar calamities even if the potato had never reached Ireland, especially if the peasants were dependent on any one single food crop.

One-crop dependence has always been a dangerous practice. T h e potato, because of its qualities of large production for little labor and excellent food value, may have contributed to Irelands woes; but that it should be blamed so heavily is questionable.

A different picture is presented in the chapters that deal with England, Scotland, Wales, and Jersey. I n these accounts it is clear that the potato has contributed much to the welfare and happiness of the people, as it has in many of the other countries of the world. Burton shows that a high proportion of the world production - possibly greater than that devoted to human consumption - is used as feed for stock, and indicates some of the byproducts that have been made from the potato, such as starch, dextrins, acetone, alcohol, and alcoholic beverages, and its use as a starting point for the production of synthetic rubber.

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The history and social influence of the potato

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. THE botanist Clusius, who prepared one of the first descriptions of the potato plant 1 , indicated not only the time the beginning of of his receiving from Philippe de Sivry Prefect of the City of Mons, Belgium two potato tubers and a berry, but also when Philippe de Sivry himself obtained the tubers. Fuess 4 in Germany, as a result of Roze's fault and evidently having no original text by Clusius, erroneously supposed the time of potato introduction into Mons to be the year Roze admitted the second mistake in the French translation of Clusius's potato diagnosis.

Salaman was born in Kensington , London and was the ninth of fifteen children born to his parents Sarah Solomon and Myer Salaman who was a wealthy merchant who traded in ostrich feathers at the height of the plume trade. The Salaman family were Ashkenazi Jews , [4] who according to Salaman, migrated to Britain from either Holland or the Rhineland in the early 18th century. Salaman was educated at St Paul's School, London initially studying classics but due to the dull teaching methods he switched to studying science and later became head boy of the Science Side of the school. He obtained a scholarship at Trinity Hall, Cambridge in and graduated with a first class degree in Natural Sciences in having studied physiology, zoology and chemistry. He was tutored and advised by the physiologist W.


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XXZV 1- pages illus. SALAMAN, after 40 years of research on genetical, morphological, pathological, and related studies of the potato, and 9 years in the preparation of the material, presents the most comprehensive book that has been published on this subject. He shows by the records of the ancient Peruvian pottery that the potato was cultivated as early as the second century A.

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Из него выпрыгнули двое мужчин, оба молодые, в военной форме. Они приближались к Беккеру с неумолимостью хорошо отлаженных механизмов. - Дэвид Беккер? - спросил один из. Беккер остановился, недоумевая, откуда им известно его имя. - Кто… кто вы. - Пройдемте с нами, пожалуйста.

Лицо его было несчастным. - Я думал, вы из городского… хотите заставить меня… - Он замолчал и как-то странно посмотрел на Беккера.  - Если не по поводу колонки, то зачем вы пришли. Хороший вопрос, подумал Беккер, рисуя в воображении горы Смоки-Маунтинс. - Просто неформальная дипломатическая любезность, - солгал. - Дипломатическая любезность? - изумился старик. - Да, сэр.

Все застыли в ужасе. На экране перед ними высветилось сообщение об ошибке: НЕДОПУСТИМЫЙ ВВОД. ТОЛЬКО В ЦИФРОВОЙ ФОРМЕ - Черт его дери! - взорвался Джабба.  - Только цифровой. Нам нужно число.

Два выстрела в спину, схватить кольцо и исчезнуть. Самая большая стоянка такси в Севилье находилась всего в одном квартале от Матеус-Гаго. Рука Халохота потянулась к пистолету.

Странно, но его очки ничуть не пострадали. Странные очки, подумал Беккер, увидев проводок, который тянулся от ушных дужек к коробочке, пристегнутой к брючному ремню. Но он настолько устал, что ему было не до любопытства. Сидя в одиночестве и собираясь с мыслями, Беккер посмотрел на кольцо на своем пальце. Зрение его несколько прояснилось, и ему удалось разобрать буквы.

В тот момент, когда он поравнялся с сиденьем, на котором сидела девушка, и подумал, что именно ей скажет, автобус проехал под уличным фонарем, на мгновение осветившим лицо обладателя трехцветной шевелюры. Беккер смотрел на него, охваченный ужасом. Под густым слоем краски он увидел не гладкие девичьи щеки, а густую щетину. Это был молодой человек.

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