Aikido And The Harmony Of Nature Pdf

aikido and the harmony of nature pdf

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The name Aikido is composed of three Japanese words: ai, meaning harmony; ki, spirit or energy; and do, the path, system or way.

About Aikido

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Martial Arts and Nature Adrian Ivakhiv. Ben Walsh. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Martial Arts and Nature. Stephanie Kaza Dr. It looks at how various martial arts describe nature, how they use nature as a teaching tool, how they imitate natural phenomena and animals in their physical techniques, how they teach their practitioners to physically interact with nature and how they believe and teach the mind and spirit should be influenced by and interact with nature.

I also have examined the core texts of each martial art where applicable and their underpinning philosophies and the writings of the founders and influential figures within each. To supplement these sources I have used histories and select overviews of each art, biographies of important figures and compilations of teachings and quotations of these individuals.

This project is intended to be a preliminary exploration of the topic. Introduction The popular imagination without a doubt sees a link between martial arts and nature. But how much of this perceived relationship is grounded in fact and how much of it is really just a myth?

When I began training five years ago I found that at the least my chosen martial art, Moo Gong Do, bears it out very well. I could not find, however, any sources that examined this relationship in other martial arts. I started this project because the topic is one that interests me and I was having difficulty finding any information on it.

After having reviewed the available information I have not been able to find any sources that have systematically studied this topic; as far as I can determine neither the literature of environmental philosophy nor that of the martial arts specifically looks at this link. The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature Taylor, does have a short less than three page article on martial arts focusing primarily on ki internal energy development and touching briefly on Taoist and Buddhist influences as well as Aikido a Japanese martial art and a few other martial arts.

The only work book, article or otherwise that I could find that is devoted in its entirety to this topic is Strike Like Lightning Rhoades, As such it probably should not be relied upon as more than a personal essay on the topic. However, due to the somewhat limited scope of this project it is of course possible that there are sources specifically examining this topic that I simply did not find, and virtually certain that there are many more resources that deal with one aspect or another of it.

In addition, because most martial arts originate in non English speaking countries there is a distinct possibility that there has been an examination of this topic published in another language but not yet translated to English.

While I have not been able to find any information on total numbers of martial arts practitioners worldwide, it has been estimated that over 18 million Americans practiced some form of martial arts in Fetto, , and the main Aikido organization claims 1. When all practitioners of Asian and non-Asian martial arts worldwide are included, the numbers are likely far above million.

Assuming even a small percentage of these martial artists practice arts in which nature plays a role the views and actions of literally millions in regards to nature could be affected. Because of this, I believe that this is a topic that bears looking into. As some martial arts schools and instructors have in recent years come to focus on particular aspects of their martial art such as sport or self-defense applications more than others and training has become restricted primarily to modern commercial schools, it is possible that some practitioners are unaware of the role nature traditionally plays in their chosen martial art.

Introduction to the Martial Arts The precursors to the formal, codified martial arts of Asia can be reliably dated to at least the Chou dynasty of China B. Chinese martial arts supposedly further developed around C.

Supposedly, around C. The Chinese martial arts had a large impact on the martial arts of the other Asian countries; those of Japan, its prefecture Okinawa, and Korea were all affected by these martial arts. In addition to this, these four different traditions are quite interconnected. Okinawan martial arts te, the predecessors to modern karate were influenced by their Japanese counterparts both initially and as te was assimilated into the rest of Japan.

Partly as a result of this process karate-do cannot truly be considered a single art. It has numerous styles that stress different principles.

This word means many different things both historically and culturally that may be relevant to this topic, and that meaning has changed over the years.

This project deals primarily with ideas of nature that fall into ii and iii. These concepts are all intimately and historically related and have evolved over time. This evolution was certainly by no means linear, and all of these views are still held to one extent or another.

In addition to these Western views, there are many different Eastern ones that are pertinent to this project. Taoism deals heavily with definition ii , and Shinto seems to be based in a view in category iii that sees the material world, humans and the divine as interconnected and un-separated see below.

The final two sections look at what has been written on individual martial arts and are broken up by their country of origin. Philosophical and Religious Background Probably as a result of their shared roots and the intermingling described above, most of the Asian martial arts share a common philosophical grounding in Taoism and Zen Buddhism. Taoism has influenced most Asian martial arts to one extent or another.

While I did not find references to these specific ideas within any of the martial arts covered in this study, the fact that they exist within a philosophy that has influenced many Asian martial arts is worth noting.

Chan Buddhism has been especially influential in the Chinese martial arts and Zen strongly influenced Edo period Japanese arts such as the Yagyu Shinkage style of kenjutsu sword art.

Martial arts texts such as Fudochi Shinmyo Roku The Divine Record of Immovable Wisdom , an essay written for the head of the Yagyu Shinkage style by Takuan Soho, a Zen monk, exemplify this seemingly unlikely combination of martial practice and philosophical exploration of nature Lowry, ; Soho, ; Taylor.

In the Shinto tradition nature, humanity and the divine are viewed as a harmonious, inter- connected whole. This view of nature as divine and not inferior to, or even separate from, humanity has permeated Japanese culture. The Japanese strove to express this harmony with nature through their arts, including their martial arts Taylor, Many other terms can be used to more accurately describe the martial arts of China, but as this is the term in popular usage to refer to the majority of Chinese martial arts it is the one used by this project.

As briefly outlined above, while Shaolin kung fu was by no means the first form of martial arts in China it is widely considered to be at the least a strong catalyst for their further development. The origins of Shaolin both as a religious order and as a site for the development of kung fu are, however, quite controversial. The Indian monk Bodhidharma is traditionally attributed with both the founding of Chan Buddhism in China and with the initial development of the martial arts at the Shaolin temples.

Chow and Spangler take a skeptical approach to parts of his legend, but conclude that he did in fact exist and contribute to both Chan and kung fu as tradition asserts as does Huang. Finally, Holcombe states not only that Bodhidharma had no relation to either Chinese martial arts or Chan Buddhism as does Henning, , but also that he possibly did not exist at all.

It should be mentioned, however, that in the footnotes of the same article Holcombe states that he did in fact find two references to Bodhidharma in what he considers legitimate historical sources dating from and C. Many styles were inspired by or at a minimum bear the name of actual and mythical animals, while others have descriptive names or bear the names of their founders. In addition, many Chinese martial art styles are divided into subsystems for example, White Crane and Black Crane.

In addition to their animal imitating techniques, kung fu styles, because of their traditional claim of Shaolin roots, are in many cases intimately tied to Chan Buddhism. The Order also states that they have historically interacted with nature especially animals beyond simply imitating it in their kung fu. It can be considered a style of kung fu, but because of its prominence and its extensive incorporation of Taoist principles see below I have chosen to examine it separately.

As with Shaolin kung fu, the historical origins of Tai Chi and its traditionally cited founder are controversial. As mentioned above, the legendary monk Chang San-Feng allegedly created the internal Chinese martial arts nei chia after synthesizing Shaolin kung fu with Taoist principles; this is what later came to be Tai Chi. Huang is somewhat more skeptical of some of the details of his life, though he accepts him as the founder of Tai Chi. In addition, Huang mentions him living on Wu Tang Mountain, but makes no mention of a temple.

Chow and Spangler accept him as the founder of Tai Chi and assert that he was a Shaolin practitioner before he founded it. They also make mention of him living on Wu Tang, but again there is no temple, Shaolin or otherwise.

In addition, they describe a legend where Chang San-Feng was inspired to create Tai Chi after seeing a fight between a hawk and a snake and further based its techniques on other natural phenomena.

Draeger and Smith are skeptical of virtually all aspects of the legend of Chang San-Feng, while Henning states outright that he believes him to be a myth entirely. The history of Tai Chi since the time of its legendary founder is somewhat more concrete, and it is accepted that there are five major schools of Tai Chi Chuan Chen, Yang, Wu, Sun and Hao.

However, because many Tai Chi practitioners train in the art mostly for health reasons, often they do not utilize all the philosophical and martial aspects of the art Huang; Liao; Order of Shaolin Ch'an. As mentioned above, Tai Chi is intimately linked to Taoism, both through its origins and through its principles.

In addition, Huang stresses the influence of the I Ching the book of changes in Tai Chi Liao also discusses this, as do Chow and Spangler , as well as the role the eight directions and the five elements in this case metal, wood, water, fire and soil.

The main difference here seems to be which text the author places more emphasis on. Liao mentions both sparingly and stresses instead the ideas stemming from them, especially Yin-Yang theory. In addition to the influence of Taoism or perhaps partly as a result of this influence , Tai Chi has many techniques that bear names of natural phenomena and animals. Liao also describes most of these movements, although he sometimes uses slightly different names. Huang states that these names are given as metaphors for the movements executed.

For hundreds of years the samurai, with their roots at least as far back as the eleventh or twelfth century C. Their traditions and teachings, as well as their martial arts, have strongly affected Japan and the modern Japanese martial arts. Their favored weapon was inarguably the sword, and as such no study of the samurai would be complete without looking at the traditional martial arts of the sword, or kenjutsu there were, and are, many different styles of kenjutsu.

It is generally agreed that the majority of the formal development and refinement of kenjutsu happened between the middle of the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries C. Compared to the confusion and controversy of the Chinese martial arts seen in English language texts, these traditions and the people associated with them are relatively well documented. It is generally accepted that the most famous of all the Japanese swordsmen was Miyamoto Musashi C.

As a child he was relatively weak and often ill, one of the initial reasons for his practice of the martial arts. He also began studying Buddhism and Shinto at an early age. Throughout his life he trained in a number of different martial arts, including Tenjin Shin-yo-ryu a style of jujutsu , Yagyu Shinkage kenjutsu see above , and Daito-ryu Aiki-jutsu.

Just as influential in the creation of Aikido was his religious and spiritual life. In he became an adherent of Omoto-kyo, a pacifistic quasi-Shinto religious sect. After creating Aikido and seeing it through WWII and the American occupation to begin to flourish around the world Ueshiba sensei passed away on April 26, at the age of 85 Heckler; Saotome; Ueshiba. Conclusion Despite the apparently strong connections between the martial arts and nature which have been touched on in this literature review I have been unable to find any comprehensive examination of this topic, though of course it is possible that one has been conducted that I simply did not find, especially considering the extensive literature on the martial arts written in the native languages of their countries of origin.

All four arts examined in this literature review did have some sort of connection to nature, though of course the meaning of that term was different from art to art and philosophy to philosophy.

Aikido and the Harmony of Nature

The popular and highly respected horse trainer Mark Rashid brings together Western and Eastern philosophies to demonstrate a seamless new incarnation of horse training. He explains how he allows the traditionally firm or assertive approach of the old Western style to take some lessons from the softer conflict resolution and ego reduction approach that the Japanese martial art of aikido teaches. When Rashid discovered the art of aikido, he came to realize the effect it had on his own sense of self. After extensive training in this martial art form, he learned how to use his mind and body more efficiently and effectively and improved his equine sense to help horses become better competitors and a more pleasurable mount. Aikido helped Rashid become a more informed and more skilled rider and trainer. In this book, Rashid shares that knowledge with readers, allowing them to bond better with their own horses. Mark Rashid is an excellent author and horse person.

Published by Kodansha International Ltd. All rights reserved. Printed in Japan. Translation of: Aikido no kokoro. Title GV U

Ueshiba Kisshomaru - The spirit of Aikido.pdf

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May 02, Hello and thank you for visiting AikiWeb, the world's most active online Aikido community! This site is home to over 22, aikido practitioners from around the world and covers a wide range of aikido topics including techniques, philosophy, history, humor, beginner issues, the marketplace, and more. Provides advice for training and bonding with horses, discussing how horses and humans communicate through body language, concepts of classic horsemanship, and holistic principles to use when handling horses. Martial Arts - In Plain Sight. Does aikido teach enlightenment? Culture of Malaysia - Wikipedia.

Here is a unique approach to the teachings of the Founder of Aikido, Morihei Ueshiba, as interpreted by his direct student of fifteen years. Mitsugi Saotome examines the spiritual philosophy of the Founder, the warrior ideals of feudal Japan as theMoreHere is a unique approach to the teachings of the Founder of Aikido, Morihei Ueshiba, as interpreted by his direct student of fifteen years. Mitsugi Saotome examines the spiritual philosophy of the Founder, the warrior ideals of feudal Japan as the basis of his martial arts philosophy, and the scientific principles underlying the philosophy of Aikido technique. The author shows that the physical movement of Aikido is the embodiment of principles of the spirit. Negative force is not countered with aggression but is controlled and redirected through the power and balance of spiral movement. This is the shape of Aikido and the dynamic shape at the foundation of all energies of existence. Aikido movement can only be understood from its roots in universal law and the processes of nature.

The Spirit of Aikido

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View Full Version : Books on Aikido. Please visit our sponsor :. Hi there, I am wondering what would be some great books on Aikido? What would you guys recommend? Any help is greatly appreciated.

ТРАНСТЕКСТ выступал серым силуэтом в слабом сумеречном свете, проникавшем сквозь купол потолка. Все лампы наверху погасли. Не было видно даже кнопочных электронных панелей на дверях кабинетов. Когда ее глаза привыкли к темноте, Сьюзан разглядела, что единственным источником слабого света в шифровалке был открытый люк, из которого исходило заметное красноватое сияние ламп, находившихся в подсобном помещении далеко внизу. Она начала двигаться в направлении люка. В воздухе ощущался едва уловимый запах озона. Остановившись у края люка, Сьюзан посмотрела .

Он искал глазами открытую дверь или ворота - любой выход из этого бесконечного каньона, - но ничего не. Улочка начала сужаться. - Soccoro! - Его голос звучал еле слышно.  - Помогите. С обеих сторон на него надвигались стены извивающейся улочки.

Стратмору едва не удалось сделать предлагаемый стандарт шифрования величайшим достижением АНБ: если бы он был принят, у агентства появился бы ключ для взлома любого шифра в Америке. Люди, знающие толк в компьютерах, пришли в неистовство. Фонд электронных границ, воспользовавшись вспыхнувшим скандалом, поносил конгресс за проявленную наивность и назвал АНБ величайшей угрозой свободному миру со времен Гитлера. Новый стандарт шифрования приказал долго жить. Никому не показалось удивительным, что два дня спустя АНБ приняло Грега Хейла на работу.

Танкадо решил потрясти мир рассказом о секретной машине, способной установить тотальный правительственный контроль над пользователями компьютеров по всему миру. У АН Б не было иного выбора, кроме как остановить его любой ценой. Арест и депортация Танкадо, широко освещавшиеся средствами массовой информации, стали печальным и позорным событием.

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