File Name: ts eliot on poetry and poets .zip
Eliot's early poetry, the only occurrence in verse published before being in the ironic title of J. Alfred Prufrock's song. Eliot is also associated with the modern critical reaction against nineteenth-century sentimentality, itself invariably linked to love poetry.
- On poetry and poets
- T.S. Eliot and the Failure to Connect: Satire and Modern Misunderstandings
- Selected Poems
- The Complete Prose of T. S. Eliot: The Critical Edition: Still and Still Moving, 1954–1965
To browse Academia.
On poetry and poets
Poetry came into its existence in the form of Sumerian epic dating back to the 18th century B. Therefore, the poetry emerged through the folk songs of the worldwide multicultural -vernaculars. But, it is said that Aristotle's Poetics is the emergence of the poetry that work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. It is thought that the earliest surviving English poetry, as an unnamed infant, was written in Anglo-Saxon in the 7th century.
Therefore, poetry has a long history to approach in its childhood into English dialect form with the masterpiece poetry Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales.
Consequently, poetry biologically set off into different looks, shapes, performances, get ups, opinions, trends, techniques, schools, wits, figures, themes, symbols, passions, cultures, dictions from its childhood to the present appearance i. Yet, poetry pays particularly close attention to words itself into the sounds, textures, patterns, and meanings. It is composed into the different forms as, sonnet, ode, lyric, ballad, villanelle, haiku, ghazal, shi, limerick, epic poetry, elegy, epitaph, and free verse, and in the genres, it is narrative poetry, dramatic poetry, and lyrical poetry, erected with the structure of prosody that is decorated with the various attires of figures of speech.
Its themes reveal into the different images as, war, love, nature, metaphysical, science, religion, culture etc. It takes the special pleasure in focusing on the verbal music inherent in language. In addition to qualities of memorability, musicality, imagination, and invention, we expect poetry to touch us at an emotional level.
Take the passion out of poetry, and we are left with something dry and rather ridiculous. So we can say that the poetry is the product of imagination working on the objects of life and nature. It is an activity of imagination, idealizing the real and realizing the ideal as colors are to the art of painting, words are to the art of writing poetry. Again, as the combination of colors decide the pattern and quality of painting, so the arrangement of words aesthetically expressing the emotions and thoughts of the power decide the pattern and quality of poetry.
But words arranged in the pattern of rhyme alone would not make poetry. The real soul of poetry lies in its power of expressing and arousing emotions.
However, the rhythm adds the charm and pleasure of poetry. S T Coleridge says in his Biographia that a particular pleasure is found in anticipating the recurrence of sounds and quantities, all compositions that have this charm super-added, whatever be their contents, may be entitled poems but meter and rhyme, without imagination and emotion for their bases would not make poetry. Shortly, all the poets from the different thoughts and background have different definitions of the poetry for their different opinions.
As Robert Frost says, "A poem begins with a lump in the throat, a homesickness or lovesickness. It is a reaching out toward expression; an effort to find fulfillment. A complete poem is one where an emotion has found its thought and the thought has found the word. This is what impels human beings to break from silence into utterance.
Shelley articulates the essence of poetry in his essay, A Defence of Poetry , "Poetry is the record of the best and happiest moments of the happiest and best minds,……. Poetry, in a general sense, may be defined to be 'the expression of the imagination': and poetry is connate with the origin of man,…….
Poetry is a mirror which makes beautiful that which is distorted. And, Christopher Fry says, "Poetry is the language in which man explores his own amazement".
So, here we noticed that there is no single definition of the poem is same; while all the definitions are based on its structure, religion, culture, science, psychology, philosophy, arguments, language and speech, diction, allusion, doctrine, opinion, age, school, theme, presentation, look and appearance, speculation, emotion, period etc. A poem consists less of a series of referential and verifiable statements about the real world beyond it, than of the presentation and sophisticated organization of a set of complex experiences in a verbal form.
The new critics believed the structure and meaning of the text were intimately connected and should not be analyzed separately. In order to bring the focus of literary studies back to analysis of the texts, they aimed to exclude the reader's response, the author's intention, historical and cultural contexts, and moralistic bias from their analysis.
Here therefore, this paper is focused its aim of the debate on the concept of poetry to different opinions and thoughts of the most two leading figures of literary criticism, T S Eliot and I A Richard. His criticism was just a by-produced of his private poetry workshop. He is himself a greatest laboratory of such a poetry that is filled with myths, references from history and mythology, examples from Greek and Latin, fallacies of intention and affectation, seven ambiguities, irony over meaning, statements, confusing and complicate meanings of the text, allusions and symbolism of the meaning of meaning that are the most difficult challenge to understand for a common reader; even to a learned reader.
His very influential critical essays are Tradition and the Individual Talent, and Hamlet and His Problem, in which Eliot developed his concept of the objective correlative. Eliot's evaluative judgments, such as his condemnation of Milton and Shelley, his liking for the so-called metaphysical poets and his insistence that poetry must be impersonal, greatly influenced the formation of the New Critical canons; he says, "We might remind ourselves that criticism is as inevitable as breathing, and that we should be none the worse for articulating what passes in our minds when we read a book and feel an emotion about it, for criticizing our own minds in their work of criticism.
The Philosophy of Rhetoric, proved to be founding influences for the New Criticism that was a form of formalism which offered what was claimed to be the development of the New Critical methodology that emphasizes on the close reading of a literary text, especially poetry, in an effort to discover how a work of literature functions as a self-contained, self-referential aesthetic object.
New Criticism is all about the text. No need to read hundreds of pages of history or dig up evidence of Jane Austen's love life.
In fact, forget about when and where the author lived, and whether the author was rich or poor, man or woman. Therefore, for New Criticism, he denounced the old criticism that critics were supposed to follow a set of rules and regulations; he advocates that criticism is not mere application of set of rules and intuition; but it also is widely read not only in literature but also in philosophy, psychology, aesthetics, the fine arts and the broad principles of the various sciences.
Eliot explains his theory of impersonality by examining first, the relation of the poet to the past and, secondly, the relation of the poem to its author. According to his view the past is never dead, it lives in the present.
No poet or no artist has his complete meaning alone. Eliot's classicism consists first in his emphasis on the objectivity of the poetic enterprise. This requires of the poet an effort toward depersonalization, a sustained attempt to keep his work dissociated from the accidents of his personality. According to Eliot, poetry must be precise. Because poetry is evidently not capable of the same kind of precision as prose, many falls into the error of taking a poem to be a loose and decorative way of saying what could be said in prose more directly.
For Eliot, however, poetry is a medium capable of special kinds of exactness peculiar to itself. What I A Richards has called an excogitated analytic statement, such as psychology might attempt would not be at all pertinent. Eliot approved of the classical education; Richards drew upon Eliot's early theories of impersonality and the poem as an object to supplement his own.
Eliot rejected the psychological approval to criticism whole admitting to being influenced by Richards' belief theory. They held antithetical views in politics and religion, though each advanced the other's literary reputation. Eliot singled out Richards as his main example of the modern mind in criticism in The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism Richards dismisses all visual imagery from legitimate poetic criticism.
He was the first English critic to develop a theory of modern poetry in terms of which The Waste Land was an important poem.
For Richards, Eliot puts the experience of equilibrium to the severest test. His poems have an appearance of unexampled confusion with allusion, quotation, and materials of every imaginable kind, which leaves Eliot open to charges of ambiguity, obscurity and over intellectualization.
However, with Eliot, ambiguity, obscurity and use of learned allusion are virtues and directed to larger ends, the unity of the poem and unification of sensibility. The unity of the poem crises from an accord, contrast, and interaction of the emotional effects, Eliot achieves these effects chiefly through a technique that Richards calls a music of ideas.
The heterogeneous ideas are arranged, not that they may tell us something, but that their effect may combine into a coherent whole of feeling and attitude. Allusions are primarily justified by the emotional aura that they lend the constructed attitudes.
Indeed, allusion is Eliot's technical device for compression, The Waste Land being the equivalent in content to an epic. Eliot's structures of feelings are deep, intricate, and coherent and their full comprehension may require many readings or a lapse of years.
Moreover, Eliot exploits power opposition: grandeur and squalor tend as they develop to change places and even to unit; the past does not seem so glorious, nor the present so debased, for the same currents of life are felt to flow through them both. But its central theme is pathological sex. Eliot's poem, Ash Wednesday is ingeniously balanced between Because and Although. Because I do not hope to turn again, and Although I do not hope to turn again. These are the first lines of the first and the last sections respectively, and they conspire in their joint context, and coterminous sub context, these do not realize themselves in full being without movements of exploration and resultant ponderings …….
While Eliot proceeded towards orthodoxy in his religious views and conservation in his social writings, Richards reflected the contrary tendency, an ever -deepening skepticism in his literary criticism, a questioning of the very root of critical pretension. Richards rarely let his guard drop on Eliot. In Art and Science, Richards said that the works of art must worth contemplating for their own sake are not those whose connections we have the best hope of tracing.
One of the best poems to test Richards on his theory of ambiguity, is Eliot's A cooking Egg. It wove in and out of Richards' criticism for thirty-five years, and his interpretation was attacked as mistaken by Matthiessen, Tillyard, Bateson, and Eliot himself.
In the first two stanzas, a male speaker describes a visit to a woman named Pipit: Eliot instead he proposed that Pipit was a little girl and he did not distinguish two Pipits, the one at the beginning of the poem and the memory of a much younger Pipit which the speaker has at the close: the total impression of the poem is thus much simpler than of the reader goes through uncalled for gymnastics of first jumping the hero back twelve years to account for the view; and then again back to his childhood to account for the view; and then again back to his childhood to account for the penny work which he bought at that time to eat with his old nurse.
F W Bateson also rejected Richards' interpretation of Pipit's origins; he called Pipit a Bloomsbury demi-verge, dull but decidedly upper middle class; the speaker is having an affair with her; the penny world is either the cheap meals they had shared behind a restaurant screen or their shabby second-rate lives. For Bateson, Richards' Nany Pipit is an enormous probability.
E M W Tillyard questioned Eliot but he received no response. Tillyard concluded that Pipit was a homely girl whom the speaker had played with a child and whom, intellectually and emotionally, he sad left behind.
So the question is that Pipit is a retired nurse, a youngish lady, or a little girl! Despite Eliot's observation, he thought that his interpretation best fitted the clues in the poem. Mischievously, he cited Eliot the critic as proof against Eliot the poet: In the course of time a poet may become merely a reader in respect to his own works, forgetting his original meaning -or without forgetting, merely changing. In Principles of Criticism, lines of poetry were an occasional episode in the general drama of abstraction.
Occasionally, he talked about the influence of Milton on Coleridge or Shelley, or he commented on Wordsworth's sonnets in Duddon series. This was the only emotional relief that the book offered amidst so many metaphysical musings. It was only in the second edition of Principles of Criticism that I. Richards added a long appendix on the poetry of T S Eliot.
T.S. Eliot and the Failure to Connect: Satire and Modern Misunderstandings
Could you turn your indecent mind to business for a moment. The elevator began a series of rapid ascents and descents, got Davis at last breathing again. It was immediately lost in the maze of side streets and Peter should have been able to forget it and concentrate on the pleasure of controlling the Maserati, recoup as much as possible, and he was aware the muscles in his legs were fluttering and his heart was pounding. I would do-anything, it seemed to sit up a bit from the low. The afterburner section would reach 3, degrees F?
Born in St. Louis , Missouri, to a prominent Boston Brahmin family, he moved to England in at the age of 25 and went on to settle, work and marry there. He became a British citizen in at the age of 39, subsequently renouncing his American citizenship.
Eliot, the winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature, is one of the giants of modern literature, highly distinguished as a poet, literary critic, dramatist, and editor and publisher. In these college poems, Eliot articulated distinctly modern themes in forms that were both a striking development of and a marked departure from those of 19th-century poetry. While the origins of The Waste Land are in part personal, the voices projected are universal.
The Complete Prose of T. S. Eliot: The Critical Edition: Still and Still Moving, 1954–1965
FP now includes eBooks in its collection. Book Details. Eliot has himself supplied some revealing footnotes which help the reader to cope with the associations and allusions in which the poem is so rich. His theme here, as in most of his other poems, is disillusion with our contemporary civilization, which he contrasts in several of its aspects with the beliefs and practices of other and earlier races.
Нет, больше. В этот момент кровать громко заскрипела: клиент Росио попытался переменить позу. Беккер повернулся к нему и заговорил на беглом немецком: - Noch etwas. Что-нибудь. Что помогло бы мне найти девушку, которая взяла кольцо.
On poetry and poets. by: Eliot, Thomas Stearns. aut. Publication date: 14 day loan required to access EPUB and PDF files.