File Name: relationship between social policy and social development .zip
- What is social policy?
- Social Development and Public Policy: Some Lessons from Successful Experiences
- Social Policy, Social Welfare and Social Development-Pathak’s Ideas: A Critical Essay
Social policy is concerned with the ways societies across the world meet human needs for security, education, work, health and wellbeing. Social policy addresses how states and societies respond to global challenges of social, demographic and economic change, and of poverty, migration and globalisation. Social policy analyses the different roles of: national governments, the family, civil society, the market, and international organisations in providing services and support across the life course from childhood to old age.
What is social policy?
Social policy and social work: the challenges of professional intervention. This article discusses social policy and Social Work and the challenges that their relationship presents for professional intervention. It emphasizes the flourishing and deepening of the debate about this issue in the past two decades of the 20th century, and its consolidation in the early 21st century, which is expressed through the constant production of knowledge and the peculiar insertion of agencies that represent the professional category in the struggle for the institutionalization of public policies compatible with the values found in the Code of Professional Ethics for social workers.
The strongest focus is on the issues of the intervention of social workers in the field of social policy, through implementation of the professional project, committed to defending social rights of a universal character.
From this perspective, it involves social policy as a contradictory field that is permeated by antagonistic social interests and projects, in which questions directly related to specificity and professional autonomy are revised.
Keywords: Social Work. Professional intervention. Social policy. Movements within Latin American Social Work since the s have decisively changed the direction of the profession on the continent.
This process, denominated the Reconceptualization Movement, shifted the debate from the methodological focus that was dominant until then, to a debate about social relations under capitalism, and in this way came to give greater visibility to social policy as a space for the struggle to guarantee social rights FALEIROS, In this context, according to Campos , p.
In Brazil, in the late s, social workers had already taken a strong position in relation to "the formulation of social policies as a form of state intervention. This was possible, on one hand, due to the genesis of the profession, which began to link itself to the context of confronting "the social question" 1 through social policies, assuring the conditions needed for the expansion of monopoly capitalism.
On the other hand, there was a recognition that social policy has a contradictory nature, because at the same time that it serves the interests of capital, it also serves the needs of the working class. In Brazil, the debate about the profession, and about the visceral relationship between Social Work and social policy, flourished and deepened significantly during the last two decades of the 20 th century and consolidated in the early 21 st century.
This can be explained by the change that Brazilian social protection systems underwent after the country returned to a state of law in This was a period of intense mobilization of segments of civil society for the expansion and guarantee of rights in key sectors, or that is, the hard core of social policy — healthcare, social security and social assistance — and a strong investment in the professional references, to expand the knowledge about the relationship between the social question and social policy.
This led to a broad process for the production of knowledge about social policy, which has become a central pillar in the consolidation of Social Work as a field of knowledge in the social sciences.
This has favored both the insertion of the profession and its professionals in the political confrontations of Brazilian society, and also stimulated debate about the professional intervention of social workers in the realm of social policy. In relation to the knowledge produced, Iamamoto , p. With reference to professional intervention, it is noted that the inclusion of social policy in the debate about the profession would allow more concretely locating its objectives in capitalist society.
Concerning intervention, this can overlap the issue of "why do" something over that of "how to do" something. With the deepening of the investigation about the relationship between social policy and Social Work at the bases of critical social theory 3 , knowledge can be advanced in the direction of "doing for what reason".
The proposals that stem from this constitute the bases of a professional project for Brazilian social workers, which is collectively constructed and known as the Professional Ethical-Political Project MIOTO, , p. This project postulated "positioning in favor of social justice and equity, which assured the universality of access to goods and services related to social policies and programs, and their democratic administration," in addition to a "commitment to the quality of services provided to the population and to intellectual improvement from a perspective of professional competency" CFESS, , on-line.
Nevertheless, two situations provoked the rupture between this virtuous relationship, leading to a serious divergence that deserves to be debated.
The first was the reversal that took place in the s in the essential proposals of Brazilian social welfare policy, breaking the expectations of part of society that there would be an expansion of social rights. The second is the complex form of demands, in quantitative and qualitative terms, which went beyond the design and manner of the institutionalization of social programs, influenced by the regulatory guidelines of the multilateral financing and development agencies, which required evaluations of a quantitative nature and intense administrative-bureaucratic control over the actions undertaken and the results obtained.
These two situations, in addition to producing significant impacts on the interventional processes of social assistants, reveal the existence of issues related to the handling of intervention in social policies in the realm of the profession that must be considered. It is precisely the question of professional intervention in the field of social policy that this article addresses. By doing so, it seeks to deepen the debate about the particularities of professional actions in the realm of social policy, especially the issues of autonomy and specificity related to the insertion of social assistants in traditional spaces of public policies, linked to the direct provision of services to the population.
The presentation is organized in two topics. The first concerns the relationship between Brazilian social policy and professional intervention and provides a brief historic retrospective, which looks at professional values, the space of intervention and its convergence or divergence with public policies in the social field.
The second particularizes the debate about intervention and its relationship with social policy, an understanding favored by the framing of the first topic, which concerns the expansion and complexity of the demands and the responses offered in terms of the institutional principles and designs. Social policy as a privileged field for professional intervention.
Although this text proposes to analyze the relationship between social policy and the professional intervention of social workers since the s, a brief historic incursion is necessary, considering that the professional alterations are inherited from past elements and the new functionalities contain traces of what came before them, which may be denied or consolidated.
A review of the trajectory of the profession in Brazil since its institutionalization in the country to the time period that will be analyzed locates the professional intervention at the margin of the debate about the confrontation of social demands by Brazilian society, although with the presence of Social Work professionals among the ranks of State employees, especially at the federal level 4 , in addition to their insertion in systems 5 and organizations of a religious and confessional nature 6.
The functions performed by social workers since the s reveal a concern for the integration of individuals and the normalization of their conduct. There was no discussion of the relation of this with social policies, which were also not analyzed, either by Social Work or by other fields of knowledge. More serious issues with more complex theoretical explanations were not part of the common professional activity.
The intervention of social workers converged on the institutional objectives of social integration and the reduction of "behavioral deviations". The particular moment of Social Work should be considered, seeking its consolidation as a profession in a field that is supposedly considered as a worthy cause and one that undertakes actions aimed at organizing the demand for services and benefits offered by the public and private institutional apparatus.
Debating the meaning of the functions in the handling of social issues, and of these along with structural and topical issues, was not a professional concern of social workers. Until the mids, these functions were focused quite endogenously at the interior of Social Work, on the processes and methods of intervention, autonomously from institutional instances.
Internationally, they were related to issues concerning development and social progress as a natural trajectory to be followed by countries that at the time were considered underdeveloped. Since the second half of the s, in an environment of great expectations, due to the post-war development philosophy and the first development plans underway, while Social Work incorporated the philosophy, it also recognized a need to review its theory, posture and methods, as a condition for better integrating this process JUNQUEIRA, , p.
The military dictatorship that took power in not only suffocated the debate about the directions of Social Work initiated in the s, but isolated the professional category from the movement of critical review experienced in Latin America. In terms of the relationship of the military dictatorship with the field of social protection, the state organization was used to expand the base of support for the military government through the provision of some social security benefits, and there was an expansion of national social programs.
The later expanded its range of action both geographically and in the scope of its protective activities. The provision of social welfare services and benefits, or the "handling of poverty", was restricted to civil society organizations usually of a confessional nature.
With the rapid urbanization of the s, and the impoverishment of the population, demands for actions in the field of social protection reached state and municipal governments.
The offer of services expanded, consolidating the public-private network, especially for the protection of children and adolescents. The number of professionals increased, and their action was polarized among initiatives for community development, attention to well-defined population segments and in government and non-governmental agencies.
The first state and municipal secretariats were created at this time to handle the new demands 7. The discourse of well-being was developed, echoing the international debate. There was an aggiornamento 8 of the profession, which came to assume a better defined function in terms of its legal-administrative position, and one that was apparently better qualified and in a better hierarchical position with the recently created institutions. At the end of this period, isolated experiences brought a critical perspective to the activity of social workers, separating it from the dominant "technicist" discourse that stemmed both from U.
The logic of the social programs and projects appears at the heart of the technical rational adopted at the time, and shaped the emergence of a planning process as a form of guiding and controlling the social changes. Nevertheless, the method for formulation and accompaniment of state planning, at either the federal, state or municipal levels, was conducted in an isolated and non-systematic manner, always in terms of large objectives.
This favored the autonomy of professional action, even when it diverged from the official dominant position, because the instances for control did not grasp the local and particular interventionist processes.
It is interesting to note the beginning of the debate about social policy and its relation with professional conduct in the realm of the professional category. It raised a debate about the issue of social rights, taking strong positions on issues such as democracy and the exercise of liberty, social domination and practice and social rights. The article identified a vanguard position that revealed criticisms of the process of professional education made by professionals.
The criticisms were aimed at the execution of services on one hand, and on the other, the administration of social programs. At this time, social policy was being understood in its relation with the social question, and the creation of graduate programs favored a more critical reading of the Brazilian reality, while a Marxian perspective was gradually inscribed in the theoretical production of segments of the professional category.
The return to the state of law in brought new life to the profession, mainly with the approval of the Constitution in , which incorporated the ideals of social rights, defining a perspective of ethical values that are dear to social workers, as well as a guarantee of universal social protection under the responsibility of the state, especially in the field of health care and social assistance.
Professional intervention was aimed at the implementation of national policies. First, soon after the end of the dictatorship, there was an identification between professional values and the constitutional measures related to social rights.
There was an asymmetry, however, between the practice of social workers, which continued to be that of previous times, and the new values, such as equality in the fruition of rights, democratic participation and universal protection, under the aegis of the state in some social policies.
The convergence between the principles and values of Social Work and government policies did not last long. The virtuous cycle was broken, in at least two senses — in the professional field and in the realm of national social protection policies.
In the professional realm, the time needed was not found to reorder the practices from a perspective in keeping with the opportunities for the sedimentation of the social rights offered by the new moment. One of the possible explanations for this was the form of appropriation of the new curriculum at schools of Social Work, which was based on critical theory, which on the ethical plane, took a radical position on the side of the working class.
This minimum curriculum, approved by the Ministry of Education and Culture for the Schools of Social Work in to be implemented by , was incorporated in quite a heterogeneous manner by the universities, with adjustments that replaced the former practices with a new argumentative focus, as analyzed by Carvalho For this reason, the educational process reduced the changes in terms of professional intervention, which, combined with the expansion in the number of schools of Social Work, contributed to the maintenance of reiterative practices, although with a theoretical-methodological discourse that was apparently critical and conducive to the new Brazilian social protection paradigm.
Another great transformation in this field was related to the demands that were placed on social workers. These became complex, multifaceted, and expanded both qualitatively and quantitatively New socio-occupational spaces arose with two implications for the interventions of social workers. The first was the requirement for contextualization and to grasp the meaning of the new requirements, which because of their complexity, constituted fields of knowledge shared with various professional areas.
The deepening of this understanding unveiled the specificities of the professional areas involved, producing knowledge that must be incorporated to professional knowledge and action. The second was the requirement for institutional apparatuses that had a greater capacity to provide physical and operational support to the new demands, considering their diversification and expansion. In the institutional field, the global crises of Western capitalist economies led to a violent reduction of the emphasis on universalist and egalitarian ideals in the field of social rights, with these ideals substituted by the demand to focus on vulnerable populations and social risk, as preached by global development and finance agencies A divergence appeared between the definitions of social protection found in the Brazilian Constitution of and the operationalization of social policies and professional values.
The consequence of this for professional intervention, as a result of the forms of operationalization of the social policies, soon become evident. The new nationally institutionalized models, which were quite rigid in terms of control of the implementation of social policies, which previously did not exist, reduced the relative autonomy of social workers. Their action was tied to bureaucratic procedures in the development of social programs and to constant requirements for the quantification of results.
The relative professional independence, resulting from their reading of the real conditions and from the implementation of actions linked to ethical values of the profession, was restricted because it was not possible to program actions, because they had become subject to administrative controls that sought the computerization of the implementation and evaluation phases of the sectorial social policies.
The functionality of the professional intervention in the field of social policies alters and conditions their content according to the possibilities of a given historic moment.
Professional intervention in the field of social policy and its current challenges. Therefore, the confrontation of the challenges in this field became a fundamental question for the ethical, theoretical and technical legitimacy of the profession.
In this regard, the analysis of the results of studies about professional practice in different sectorial policies, and systematic contact with social assistants inserted in these policies has indicated the need to deepen knowledge about professional intervention, contextualizing it in the field of social policy.
This is because, upon introducing themselves to countless socio-occupational spaces, social workers must appropriate the debate about professional intervention in their field of knowledge and the need to place it in action. This involves activating it in a field that is under extreme pressure from conflicting professional and societal projects in a dynamic that expresses public and private social contradictions and interests in the context of collective labor processes.
In these circumstances, social workers face two crucial issues: that of professional autonomy and professional specificity. In thesis, this means confronting the dilemmas that still persist in the debate about professional practice in Social Work 12 and that are revised in the new Brazilian scene.
In terms of professional autonomy, the development of critical social thinking and the postulation that the profession is inserted in the socio-technical division, allows advancing in the debate related to the condition of social workers as salaried workers.
This condition imposes limits on the conduct of their work and consequently on the implementation of the professional project, confirming its relative autonomy, which is conditioned by social struggles between different social projects. That is, this autonomy can be expanded or compressed, depending on the social bases that sustain the social direction projected by the professional in his or her actions IAMAMOTO, , Iamamoto indicates that the tension generated between the professional project, which designates that social workers are dotted with liberty and teleology, and their situation as salaried workers, when understood subjectively, is expressed through complaints about the distancing between the professional project and reality, or about the discrepancy between theory and practice.
Social Development and Public Policy: Some Lessons from Successful Experiences
This United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) was that the relation between macroeconomic policy and social policy was a positive one Globkom,
Social Policy, Social Welfare and Social Development-Pathak’s Ideas: A Critical Essay
The developments and changes in the social life have led to change in the social needs. Therefore, problems and their solutions also change. The industrial revolution which realized in the eighteenth century had some important impacts not only on the economic life but also on social structure.
Social policy and social work: the challenges of professional intervention. This article discusses social policy and Social Work and the challenges that their relationship presents for professional intervention. It emphasizes the flourishing and deepening of the debate about this issue in the past two decades of the 20th century, and its consolidation in the early 21st century, which is expressed through the constant production of knowledge and the peculiar insertion of agencies that represent the professional category in the struggle for the institutionalization of public policies compatible with the values found in the Code of Professional Ethics for social workers. The strongest focus is on the issues of the intervention of social workers in the field of social policy, through implementation of the professional project, committed to defending social rights of a universal character. From this perspective, it involves social policy as a contradictory field that is permeated by antagonistic social interests and projects, in which questions directly related to specificity and professional autonomy are revised. Keywords: Social Work.
Хейл зашевелился и в ответ на каждое завывание сирены начал моргать. Неожиданно для самой себя Сьюзан схватила беретту, и Хейл, открыв глаза, увидел ее, стоящую с револьвером в руке, нацеленным ему в низ живота. - Где ключ? - потребовала. Хейл с трудом пришел в .
У тебя ужасный вид. Сьюзан подавила поднимающуюся волну страха. В нескольких метрах от нее ярко светился экран Хейла. - Со мной… все в порядке, - выдавила. Сердце ее готово было выскочить из груди.
Мысли Стратмора судорожно метались в поисках решения. Всегда есть какой-то выход. Наконец он заговорил - спокойно, тихо и даже печально: - Нет, Грег, извини.
Халохот, расталкивая людей, двигался по центральному проходу, ища глазами намеченную жертву. Он где-то. Халохот повернулся к алтарю. В тридцати метрах впереди продолжалось святое причастие.
Лицо его все сильнее заливалось краской. - Невероятно! - воскликнул он и снова швырнул трубку. - Шифровалка вот-вот взорвется, а Стратмор не отвечает на звонки.