File Name: nuclear physics problems and solutions .zip
These issues arise in condensed matter physics in the context of transport of spins in the presence of spin orbit coupling: the Pauli Hamiltonian governing the leading relativistic corrections in [Show full abstract] the role of the non-Abelian gauge fields is taken by the physical electromagnetic fields. Swinney is. Marder, Condensed Matter Physics, Wiley,
- 31.E: Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics (Exercises)
- Methodical Instructions For Solutions of Problems in Nuclear Physics
- Problems and Solutions in Nuclear and Particle Physics
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31.E: Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics (Exercises)
Is either necessarily more energetic than the other? Which can be the most energetic? Ionizing radiation interacts with matter by scattering from electrons and nuclei in the substance. Based on the law of conservation of momentum and energy, explain why electrons tend to absorb more energy than nuclei in these interactions.
What characteristics of radioactivity show it to be nuclear in origin and not atomic? What is the source of the energy emitted in radioactive decay? Identify an earlier conservation law, and describe how it was modified to take such processes into account. Consider Figure. Arrange the following according to their ability to act as radiation shields, with the best first and worst last.
Explain your ordering in terms of how radiation loses its energy in matter. Often, when people have to work around radioactive materials spills, we see them wearing white coveralls usually a plastic material. What types of radiation if any do you think these suits protect the worker from, and how?
Is it possible for light emitted by a scintillator to be too low in frequency to be used in a photomultiplier tube? The weak and strong nuclear forces are basic to the structure of matter.
Why we do not experience them directly? Define and make clear distinctions between the terms neutron, nucleon, nucleus, nuclide, and neutrino. What are isotopes? Why do different isotopes of the same element have similar chemistries? Be specific about the type of antimatter, the need for vacuum storage, and the fraction of matter converted into energy. Note that the electron no longer exists after it is captured by the nucleus.
Neutrinos are experimentally determined to have an extremely small mass. Huge numbers of neutrinos are created in a supernova at the same time as massive amounts of light are first produced. When the A supernova occurred in the Large Magellanic Cloud, visible primarily in the Southern Hemisphere and some , light-years away from Earth, neutrinos from the explosion were observed at about the same time as the light from the blast.
How could the relative arrival times of neutrinos and light be used to place limits on the mass of neutrinos? What do the three types of beta decay have in common that is distinctly different from alpha decay? Does the number of radioactive nuclei in a sample decrease to exactly half its original value in one half-life?
Explain in terms of the statistical nature of radioactive decay. Radioactivity depends on the nucleus and not the atom or its chemical state. Why, then, is one kilogram of uranium more radioactive than one kilogram of uranium hexafluoride?
Explain how a bound system can have less mass than its components. Why is this not observed classically, say for a building made of bricks? Spontaneous radioactive decay occurs only when the decay products have less mass than the parent, and it tends to produce a daughter that is more stable than the parent.
Explain how this is related to the fact that more tightly bound nuclei are more stable. Consider the binding energy per nucleon.
Will doing this produce a larger or smaller value for BE? Why is this effect usually negligible? A physics student caught breaking conservation laws is imprisoned. She leans against the cell wall hoping to tunnel out quantum mechanically. Explain why her chances are negligible. This is so in any classical situation. That is, does it travel each point along an imaginary line from inside to out?
The energy of Suppose a particle of ionizing radiation deposits 0. What maximum number of ion pairs can it create? A particle of ionizing radiation creates ion pairs in the gas inside a Geiger tube as it passes through.
What minimum energy was deposited, if The small answer is consistent with the fact that the energy is large on a quantum mechanical scale but small on a macroscopic scale. Suppose a particle of ionizing radiation deposits 1. Each ion pair requires What is the current? What is the current if this last effect multiplies the number of ion pairs by ? This mass at nuclear density would make a cube 1.
Find the length of a side of a cube having a mass of 1. Note that the radius of the largest nucleus is still much smaller than the size of an atom. Solution a 4. Verify that this amount of mass converted to energy yields The detail observable using a probe is limited by its wavelength. Note that a photon having this energy is difficult to produce and interacts poorly with the nucleus, limiting the practicability of this probe.
What is the ratio of the velocity of a 5. See also Exercise. A favorite isotope in physics labs, since it has a short half-life and decays to a stable nuclide. Poses special problems because its daughter is a radioactive noble gas. The parent nuclide is a major waste product of reactors and has chemistry similar to potassium and sodium, resulting in its concentration in your cells if ingested. When an electron and positron annihilate, both their masses are destroyed, creating two equal energy photons to preserve momentum.
To do this, identify the values of each before and after the annihilation. To do this, identify the values of each before and after the decay. To do this, identify the values of each before and after the capture. Why is this?
Data from the appendices and the periodic table may be needed for these problems. An old campfire is uncovered during an archaeological dig. Solution a 0. Mantles for gas lanterns contain thorium, because it forms an oxide that can survive being heated to incandescence for long periods of time. If an average lantern mantle contains mg of thorium, what is its activity?
These numbers are typical for a kg adult. Solution a There is more than one isotope of natural uranium. If a researcher isolates 1. In a difficult experiment, a researcher found that the activity of 1. What is the half-life in years?
You can sometimes find deep red crystal vases in antique stores, called uranium glass because their color was produced by doping the glass with uranium. Look up the natural isotopes of uranium and their half-lives, and calculate the activity of such a vase assuming it has 2.
Neglect the activity of any daughter nuclides. A tree falls in a forest. How long after its manufacture does this happen? Natural uranium is 0. At the time of manufacture, such a sign contains Solution a 1.
World War II aircraft had instruments with glowing radium-painted dials see [link]. What is the activity of this instrument A student measures the radioactivity of this source with a Geiger counter and observes counts per minute.
She notices that the source was prepared days before her lab. What fraction of the decays is she observing with her apparatus? Only a fraction of that causes a response in the detector. Some is absorbed within the source, some is absorbed by the detector, and some does not penetrate the detector. Armor-piercing shells with depleted uranium cores are fired by aircraft at tanks. The high density of the uranium makes them effective.
Depleted uranium has been erroneously called non-radioactive. To demonstrate that this is wrong:. These plates went out of production some 30 years ago, but are still available as collectibles.
Methodical Instructions For Solutions of Problems in Nuclear Physics
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Problems and Solutions in Nuclear and Particle Physics
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Register Now. Hey there! We receieved your request. We can think of all nuclides as made up of a neutron-proton mixture that we can call nuclear matter. What is its density?
The following is a list of notable unsolved problems grouped into broad areas of physics.
- У него был врожденный порок сердца. - Никогда об этом не слышала. - Так записано в его медицинской карточке. Он не очень-то об этом распространялся. Сьюзан трудно было поверить в такое удачное совпадение. - Его погубило слабое сердце - вот так .