File Name: land degradation and development .zip
- Economics of land degradation and improvement
- Land Degradation and Socio-Economic Development
- Implementation of "Land Degradation Neutrality" in Germany
- Land degradation
Land degradation is a global problem that particularly impacts the poor rural inhabitants of low and middle-income countries.
Economics of land degradation and improvement
Land degradation is the reduction or loss of the biological or economic productivity and complexity of rain—fed cropland, irrigated cropland, or range, pasture, forest or woodlands resulting from natural processes, land uses or other human activities and habitation patterns such as land contamination, soil erosion and the destruction of the vegetation cover UNCCD, Thirty-three per cent of global land area is degraded FAO, About 47 per cent of degrading land globally is forest; cropland accounts for approximately 18 per cent of the global total degraded land Bai et al. About two billion people and 1. The alarming rates of degradation globally have been recognized and accorded international efforts to help halt and reverse land degradation and combat desertification ibid.
Land Degradation and Socio-Economic Development
Land degradation is globally pervasive and, in some places, irreversible. Humans have historically modified the environment directly and indirectly to meet their requirements, but the rate and extent of degradation has accelerated dramatically in recent years. The resulting anthropogenic impacts on land have been so profound that a new geologic era has been recognized, the Anthropocene - generally dated from Many studies have contributed to the current theoretical understanding of land degradation. However, some critical aspects that underlie existing knowledge remain to be addressed. Even in the context of extensive study, surprisingly, there remain serious gaps is in the basic foundation of understanding.
Implementation of "Land Degradation Neutrality" in Germany
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This book offers an overview of recent literature on land degradation and its interrelationship with socio-economic development processes in the developing world.
Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land. This is considered to be an important topic of the 21st century due to the implications land degradation has upon agricultural productivity , the environment, and its effects on food security. According to the Special Report on Climate Change and Land of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change : "About a quarter of the Earth's ice-free land area is subject to human-induced degradation medium confidence. Soil erosion from agricultural fields is estimated to be currently 10 to 20 times no tillage to more than times conventional tillage higher than the soil formation rate medium confidence. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 15 has a target to restore degraded land and soil and achieve a land degradation-neutral world by There are four main ways of looking at land degradation and its impact on the environment around it:. A problem with defining land degradation is that what one group of people might view as degradation, others might view as a benefit or opportunity.
Achieving goals in land and soil protection, for example, cannot build on a long tradition of policymaking or on a solid basis of information and data for monitoring. Stephanie Wunder from Ecologic Institute presented results from a report, which served as the basis for intensive discussions among the participants. The workshop aimed for making the concept of land and soil degradation more practical for the German context and finding approaches how to achieve "land degradation neutrality" as formulated in SDG For this, the most important soil functions in Germany were identified, their threats were evaluated, and the participants discussed, which indicators and data are available for an effective monitoring. Participants from research, policy and civil society agreed that that soil sealing and land take have a high priority in Germany when it comes to progress monitoring of target The respective indicator is already anchored in the German sustainable development strategy, supported by solid information and reliable data. It is also related to an existing policy goal the "ha goal" and could be extended towards other targets and indicators.
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Не стоит благодарности. - Она улыбнулась и села напротив шефа. Стратмор был крупным кряжистым мужчиной, чье невыразительное лицо скрывало присущие ему решительность, настойчивость и неизменное стремление к совершенству. Серые глаза светились уверенностью, с которой сочеталась профессиональная скрытность, но сегодня в них проглядывали беспокойство и нерешительность.