Oil And Gas Overview Pdf

oil and gas overview pdf

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The oil and gas organization of the future

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Develop and improve products. List of Partners vendors. Investors looking to enter the oil and gas industry can quickly be overwhelmed by the complex jargon and unique metrics used throughout the sector. This introduction is designed to help anyone understand the fundamentals of companies involved in the oil and gas sector by explaining key concepts and the standards of measurement.

Hydrocarbons make up crude oil and natural gas, which are naturally occurring substances found in rock in the earth's crust. These organic raw materials are created by the compression of the remains of plants and animals in sedimentary rocks such as sandstone, limestone, and shale. The sedimentary rock itself is a product of deposits in ancient oceans and other bodies of water. As layers of sediment were deposited on the ocean floor, the decaying remains of plants and animals were integrated into the forming rock.

The organic material eventually transforms into oil and gas after being exposed to specific temperatures and pressure ranges deep within the earth's crust. Oil and gas are less dense than water, so they migrate through porous sedimentary rock toward the earth's surface. When the hydrocarbons are trapped beneath less-porous cap rock, an oil and gas reservoir is formed.

Hydrocarbons are brought to the surface by drilling through the cap rock and into the reservoir. The oil and gas industry is broken down into three main segments: upstream, midstream and downstream.

Upstream businesses consist of companies involved in the exploration and production of oil and gas. These are the firms that search the world for reservoirs of the raw materials and then drill to extract that material. The upstream segment is characterized by high risks, high investment capital, extended duration as it takes time to locate and drill, as well as being technologically intensive. Midstream businesses are those that are focused on transportation. They are the ones responsible for moving the extracted raw materials to refineries to process the oil and gas.

Midstream companies are characterized by shipping, trucking, pipelines, and storing of the raw materials. The midstream segment is also marked by high regulation, particularly on pipeline transmission, and low capital risk.

The segment is also naturally dependent on the success of upstream firms. Downstream businesses are the refineries. These are the companies responsible for removing impurities and converting the oil and gas to products for the general public, such as gasoline, jet fuel, heating oil, and asphalt. One barrel, usually abbreviated as bbl, is equal to 42 U. A common methodology in the oil patch is to use a prefix of "M" to indicate 1, and a prefix of "MM" to indicate 1 million.

Therefore, 1, barrels are commonly denoted as Mbbl, and 1 million barrels are denoted as MMbbl. Natural gas production is described in terms of cubic feet. Similar to the convention for oil, the term Mmcf means 1 million cubic feet of gas. Bcf means 1 billion cubic feet and Tcf represents 1 trillion cubic feet. Instead, the futures contract is based on 1 million British thermal units, or MMBtu, which is roughly equivalent to cubic feet of gas.

In this calculation, one BOE has the energy equivalent of 6, cubic feet of gas or roughly one bbl to six Mcf. Public oil and gas companies are required to disclose proven oil and gas reserve quantities as supplementary information, but not as part of their financial statement.

Revenue will inevitably decline over time. Once a well is drilled, various activities are involved in generating and maintaining its production over time. These activities are called well servicing and can include logging, cementing, casing, perforating, fracturing, and maintenance.

Oil drilling and oil servicing thus represent two different business activities within the oil and gas industry. The revenue of service companies is tied to the activity level in the oil and gas industry. Rig count and utilization rates are indicators of the amount of activity happening in the United States at any given time. Energy Information Administration. Petroleum Office. Andrew C. Inkpen, Michael H. Accessed Jan. Financial Accounting Standards Board.

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Popular Courses. Part Of. Introduction to Oil Trading. The Price of Oil. Oil and the Markets. Commodities Oil. Table of Contents Expand. About Hydrocarbons. Upstream, Midstream, Downstream. Understanding Oil Production s. Gas Production Numbers Explained. Midstream companies are responsible for transportation from the wells to refineries and downstream companies are responsible for refining and the sale of the finished products.

Well-servicing companies conduct related construction and maintenance activities on well sites. Article Sources. Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate.

You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in our editorial policy. Compare Accounts. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation.

Related Articles. Oil Oil: A big investment with big tax breaks. Oil How does an oil and gas company measure and state its production? Partner Links. Related Terms Organic Reserve Replacement An organic reserve replacement is when an oil company accumulates reserves via exploration and production as opposed to purchasing proven reserves.

Natural Gas Equivalent Definition Natural gas equivalent measures the amount of gas energy contained in a barrel of oil. Development Well A development well is drilled in a proven area for the production of oil or gas, in contrast to an exploratory well, which is drilled to find oil or gas. How Does a Vertical Well Works? A vertical well is a technique for accessing an underground reserve of oil or natural gas that involves drilling vertically into the ground.

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The Global Oil and Gas Industry

India consumed The import dependency of crude oil and LNG during was For further details, please refer FDI Policy. India has witnessed a steady increase in production as well as consumption of petroleum products over the years. In the month of December more than 4.

This illustrated student's guide to the oil industry is certainly an exciting first for OPEC. Vol. 7, No. 2. Geotech. kirstenostherr.org

The Oil and Gas Industry in Energy Transitions

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The following maps show the drilling history and oil and gas production of selected low-permeability, continuous-type shale reservoirs. Selected geologic characteristics pertinent to occurrence of producible oil and gas resources are also shown when available. The Volumetrically Largest U. Top U.

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Below are the available bulk discount rates for each individual item when you purchase a certain amount. Register as a Premium Educator at hbsp. Publication Date: February 24, Source: Thunderbird School of Global Management.

Evolving energy demand and pricing outlooks are transforming the oil and gas industry. But few companies are fully harnessing the power of digitalization. The sector requires new business models, rationalized portfolios, accelerated investment in digital technologies and greater capital flexibility.

There is an April 1 deadline for the summer peak, and an October 1 deadline for the winter peak.

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